Sociology 3501 Test 1

Sociology 3501 Test 1 - Sociology 3501 Test 1 2/16 Two...

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Sociology 3501 Test 1 2/16 Two theories that explain things Positivist Constructionist Absolutism Relativism Determinism Voluntarism Objectivism Subjectivism Deviance – Violation of a social norm that illicit a negative reaction (this can be voluntary or involuntary – disabled people) Social Norms – the rules of social behavior – they tell us what we should or should not do o Our rules of interaction o We are usually not aware of the norms until they are violated because they break down our social interaction o There is NEVER 100% agreement of what these are Deviance is relative because norms are relative and norms change from place to place or in time Different types of social norms: o Folkways – every day norms (elevator behavior, telephone, what we wear) – our edict o Mores – more serious – has to do with moral values and a lot of our laws (some may not be reflected in law like cheating on your wife) o Taboo – this is even more serious – incest – every culture has taboo about this Deviance is NOT: o Deviant is not Different o Different is not deviant o A lot of things we do are deviant Things that are deviant are not necessarily harmful
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When things become associated with a powerless group they are likely to become illegal 2/18 3 Characteristics of Positivist Theories o Absolutism – deviance is real – implies that people who are deviant are inherently different – a behavior can be deviant regardless of context o Determinism - our behavior is at least in part determined by social factors – not everyone has the same choices and opportunities – there is a common pattern in decision making and there is evidence to support this o Objectivism – approaching the study of deviance in a very objective way – positivist think large scale while constructionist think case by case 3 Characteristics of Constructionist theories o Relativism – deviant acts are only deviant because they are labeled as such – the context changes the label of the behavior o Voluntarism – behaviors are voluntary and actions are solely determined by free will o Subjectivism – stress the importance of what is going on from the deviant person’s point of view Since these two theories approach deviance in very different ways then they compliment each other o Positivist theory – studies high consensus deviance o Constructionist theory – studies low consensus deviance Merton – Strain Anomie theory (Positivist theories) o Wanted to explain lower class deviance – Looks more on how society can influence behavior rather than the individual
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o Goals – Society tells us what our goals are and which ones we want to achieve o Means – Society tells us how to get our goals. These means are available to some groups more than other groups o Strain – the means then give us a strain o Anomie - Break down of the norms because they no longer work so you think of a new way to achieve the means 1/23 Strain Theories (these are all Positivist theories)
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Sociology 3501 Test 1 - Sociology 3501 Test 1 2/16 Two...

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