HD115 prelim2 Study Guide - HD 115 Prelim 2 Study Guide...

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HD 115 Prelim 2 Study Guide – Answers Fall 2007 First 2 stages in Erikson’s psychosocial theory: 1. Basic trust versus mistrust (Oral) – Birth~1 year: the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively when caregiving is sympathetic & loving; from warm, responsive care, infants gain sense of trust/confidence that the world is good; 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt (Anal) – 1~3 years: psychological conflict of toddlerhood, resolved positively when parents provide young children w/ suitable guidance & reasonable choices; autonomy is fostered when parents permit Social smile = smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face, which 1 st appears between 6 and 10 weeks; infants begin laughing at around 3 to 4 months The development of the 4 basic emotions: - Happiness: expressed 1 st in smiles, later through laughter; displays delight in motor & cognitive mastery & encourages caregivers to be affectionate & stimulating, fostering infant’s developing competence; strengthens parent-child bond. - Anger & Sadness: respond w/ generalized distress to variety of unpleasant experiences, including hunger, painful medical procedures, changes in body temperature, & too much or too little stimulation; angry reaction increases with age & motivates caregivers to relieve the distress; sadness is less common than anger; still-face reaction – infants turn away, frown, and cry when parents aren’t responsive. - Fear: rises during 2 nd half of 1 st year; stranger anxiety = most frequent expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults, which appears in many babies; depends on temperament, past experiences, & current situation; infants use familiar caregiver as a secure base = point from which to explore, venturing into environment & then returning for emotional support. Social referencing = active seeking of emotional information from a trusted person in deciding how to respond in an uncertain situation Self-conscious emotions = emotions such as shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, & pride that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. Self-conscious emotions appear in the middle of the 2 nd year, as 18- to 24-month-olds become aware of the self as a separate, unique individual. Emotional self-regulation = strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals. It requires voluntary, effortful management of emotions (effortful control) and improves gradually. - ex) turning away or sucking their fingers when faced with a highly stimulating novel
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2008 for the course HD 1150 taught by Professor Schelhas-miller,c. during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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HD115 prelim2 Study Guide - HD 115 Prelim 2 Study Guide...

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