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psych101 research methodology

psych101 research methodology - Research Methodology...

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Research Methodology October 1, 2007 Scientific Methods Naturalistic Observation - discovery of REM sleep (Dement) Systematic Assessment - MSLT (measures alertness) - Case histories: Freud- personality analysis through dream reports Experimental Manipulation - The Miligram experiments What’s the best method? Is the method appropriate? Naturalistic Observation – “Real Life” - ESP; but did demo lack controls? Systematic Assessment - SATs, LSATs, GMATs, & MCATs are reliable; but are they good predictors of ultimate success in a career? Experimental Manipulation - Milgram experiment tightly controlled, but does it have ecological validity? Naturalistic Observation see & record what happens in the natural, undisturbed state. Limited to observable behaviors. Great for gathering hypotheses to be tested under controlled conditions. 1. Observe a representative sample of subjects if you wish to generalize your findings to a larger population. Ex) psych 101 students are NOT typical college students What would be a representative sample of all humans? Most studies have narrow sampling 2. Observe all relevant factors (Clever Hans- horse) Claims of “Faith Healers” – James Randi exposed Rev. Peter Popoff www.randi.org Extresensory Perception (ESP) Clairvoyance : - “Discerning objects” – not present to the known senses - E.g. items in a show box. What card is it? Telepathy : - “Mind Reading” – w/o mediation of known channel of sensory communication. - E.g. birthdays Dr. Daryl Bem – ESP or Master Illusionist? - How were the subjects selected? “Guess the card generated by computer” On the basis of ESP skill? - “name drawing” did every have an equal chance? - How was the info gathered? How do you do a cold reading? October 10, 2007
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Prelim1 mean = 87.5 Did Jim do ESP, Cold Reading, or Stage Magic? - Stage magic / mentalism - how were the subjects selected? = at random? Did you really observe my reading of the name cards? – no one saw the name on the card - why was Greg absent? – not in this class. To make it seem real. - was S’s name on a card? – no he asked the twin sister for info 3. Make unbiased observations Rosenthal: Pygmalion in the Classroom Rosenhan: Being Sane in Insane Places 4. Do not disturb the behavior - Hide from sight - Become a participant observer Participant-Observer Studies Blue-Collar Journal: John Coleman – became: Dishwasher, Ditch Digger, Garbage Man to see how they were treated Observing mental patients – paranoia Observing hospital staff - Become a permanent fixure – chimps Secondary Records Research
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