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HD115 final Study Guide

HD115 final Study Guide - HD 115 Final Study Guide Answers...

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HD 115 Final Study Guide – Answers Fall 2007 Chapter 12 – Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Piaget’s concrete operational stage = his 3 rd stage, extending from about 7 to 11 years, in which thought becomes logical, flexible, & organized in its application to concrete information 1. CONSERVATION: capable of decentration (focusing on several aspects & relating them) & reversibility (mentally reversing series of steps, back to the start) 2. CLASSIFICATION: can pass class inclusion problem – more aware of classification hierarchies & can focus on relations between general category & 2 specific categories at once 3. SERIATION: more efficient seriation (ability to order items along quantitative dimension) & can seriate mentally, called transitive inference 4. SPATIAL REASONING: better understanding of directions & maps - can perform mental rotations & use cognitive maps (mental representations of a large area) Limitations of concrete operational thought: think in organized, logical way only when dealing w/ concrete info they can perceive directly; mental operations work poorly w/ abstract ideas (not apparent in real world); they follow a continuum of acquisition Impact of culture & schooling: Piagetian tasks don’t emerge spontaneously in children, but are heavily influenced by training, context, & cultural conditions (education) - conservation delayed in tribal & village societies - schooling better at transitive inference problems - street vendors & weavers better at street vending & weaving problems Information-processing speed & capacity: time needed to process info declines rapidly between ages 6 & 12; faster thinker can hold on to & operate on more info in working memory ( digit span increases from 4 to 7 from ages 7 to 12) INHIBITION: ability to control internal & external distracting stimuli improves 3 General improvements in ATTENTION: 1. Selectivity – can pick out things 2. Adaptability – can change what things are picked out 3. Planning – orderly way of deciding what to do first and next Memory strategies of… - Rehearsal = repeating info to oneself - Organization = grouping related items, which improves recall - Elaboration = creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between 2 or more pieces of info that aren’t members of the same category (“ fish smoking a pipe ”) Research on teaching reading found… - whole-language approach = parallels children’s natural language learning through use of reading materials that are whole & meaningful - phonics approach = emphasizes coaching children on phonics, the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds - studies show that children learn best w/ mixture of both approaches Blend of drill + repetition & understanding/exploring underlying math concepts is the most beneficial way of teaching math. Encouraging children to apply strategies & making sure they know why certain strategies work well are essential.
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