HD115 prelim1 Study Guide - HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide...

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HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide – Answers Fall 2007 Chapter 1 Theory is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, & predicts behavior. 3 basic issues in child development: 1. Is development a continuous process, or is it discontinuous, following a series of distinct stages (fairly sudden change)? - continuous = process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with - discontinuous = process in which new ways of understanding & responding to the world emerge at specific times - stages = qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, & behaving that characterize specific periods of development 2. Does one general course of development characterize all children, or are there many possible courses, influenced by the distinct contexts in which children grow up? - contexts = unique combinations of personal & environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change 3. Is development primarily influenced by genetic or environmental factors? Relative influence of Nature and Nurture? - nature-nurture controversy = debate among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important in development - nature = hereditary info we get from our parents - nurture = complex forces of physical & social world that influence our 4 factors that seem to offer protection from stressful life events (from research on resilience = ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development): 1. Personal Characteristics 2. A Warm Parental Relationship 3. Social Support Outside the Immediate Family (caring adult) 4. Community Resources and Opportunities Children were viewed as vulnerable beings and childhood was regarded as a distinct developmental period in medieval Europe. Laws protected children from people who might mistreat them and courts were lenient with lawbreaking youths. John Locke viewed the child as a tabula rasa , “blank slate” whose character is shaped entirely by experience. - behaviorism; adult guidance; continuous development, nurture over nature, & many courses of development Jean Jacques Rousseau viewed children as noble savages , naturally endowed with a sense of right & wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth. - adult training = harmful; concept of maturation = genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth; discontinuous, stagewise process, following single, unified course mapped out by nature G. Stanley Hall and Arnold Gesell contributed to the study of child development by launching the normative approach , in which measures of behavior are taken on large
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numbers of individuals & age-related averages are computed to present typical development. They produced a large body of descriptive facts about children. They regarded development as genetically determined process that unfolds automatically. The
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HD115 prelim1 Study Guide - HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide...

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