PHIL 110 Notes

PHIL 110 Notes - What is Knowledge? 11/09/2007 10:31:00 We...

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Unformatted text preview: What is Knowledge? 11/09/2007 10:31:00 We are looking for propositional knowledge: 9-11-2007 more is needed than true belief so, what is knowledge? Plato: the other thing: an account (justification) Gettier (1963): challenges justified true belief as knowledge counter examples: JTB is necessary but not sufficient The Gettier Cases o Imagine youre watching Ravens and Cincinnati on Monday Night FootballJTB what if the network messed up and is playing an old game JTBknowledge Reaction: are we missing the justification in this situation? Reaction: what about the belief? is it: you are watching the game, or: the game is happening o Ford Case: You purchase a Ford Card, you get the title The title you bought is fraudulent Your grandmother has died and left you her ford You believe you own a Ford It is true you own a Ford You have a justification JTB, not Knowledge o Smith-Jones: Smith and Jones work for the same employer, Smith is told that Jones is going to get promoted, both have 10 coins in their pocket Smith forms the belief: the guy with 10 coins in his pocket is going to be promoted JTB was not knowledge o Clocktower: You read the clock, 9:55 and it is 9:55, but suppose it broke 12/24 hours ago. The mechanism of knowing was faulty JTB but not knowledge Justification never seems to be enough to have knowledgecan we ever know? Intuitively, the justifications seem to be really good o these are the ones we use everyday o Scepticism Maybe our justifications arent sufficient o does that really matter? Probabilistic? o enough justification would usually be sufficient externalism about justification and knowledge o reliabilism: fact was caused by reliable mechanism if you are relying on the right kinds of things, counts as knowledge We know that sensory evidence can go awry o consider The Matrix More Cases: The lottery o one of 1/100s of millions is guaranteed to win o Everyone believes I wont win one of those people will be wrong but isnt so slim a chance a great justification? o JTB predicting the future? I think I wont win; I probably wont win The table is flat o contextualism? average Joe v. partical physicists just looking stops being sufficient Descartes, Meditations: September 13, 2007 Meditations I: He wants to refute the skeptic o the skeptic says we cant know anything: 1. If S knows that P, then it is not possible that S is mistaken in 1....
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PHIL 110 Notes - What is Knowledge? 11/09/2007 10:31:00 We...

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