PHIL 110 Notes

PHIL 110 Notes - What is Knowledge 10:31:00 ← ← We are...

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Unformatted text preview: What is Knowledge? 11/09/2007 10:31:00 ← ← We are looking for propositional knowledge: 9-11-2007 • more is needed than true belief • so, what is knowledge? ← Plato: • the other thing: an account (justification) ← Gettier (1963): • challenges justified true belief as knowledge • counter examples: JTB is necessary but not sufficient • The Gettier Cases o Imagine you’re watching Ravens and Cincinnati on Monday Night Football—JTB what if the network messed up and is playing an old game JTB≠knowledge Reaction: are we missing the justification in this situation? Reaction: what about the belief? is it: you are watching the game, or: the game is happening o Ford Case: You purchase a Ford Card, you get the title The title you bought is fraudulent Your grandmother has died and left you her ford You believe you own a Ford It is true you own a Ford You have a justification JTB, not Knowledge o Smith-Jones: Smith and Jones work for the same employer, Smith is told that Jones is going to get promoted, both have 10 coins in their pocket Smith forms the belief: the guy with 10 coins in his pocket is going to be promoted JTB was not knowledge o Clocktower: You read the clock, 9:55 and it is 9:55, but suppose it broke 12/24 hours ago. The mechanism of knowing was faulty JTB but not knowledge ← Justification never seems to be enough to have knowledge—can we ever know? • Intuitively, the justifications seem to be really good o these are the ones we use everyday o Scepticism • Maybe our justifications aren’t sufficient o does that really matter? • Probabilistic? o enough justification would usually be sufficient • externalism about justification and knowledge o reliabilism: fact was caused by reliable mechanism if you are relying on the right kinds of things, counts as knowledge • We know that sensory evidence can go awry o consider The Matrix ← More Cases: • The lottery o one of 1/100s of millions is guaranteed to win o Everyone believes “I won’t win” one of those people will be wrong but isn’t so slim a chance a great justification? o JTB predicting the future? I think I won’t win; I probably won’t win • The table is flat o contextualism? average Joe v. partical physicists just looking stops being sufficient ← ← Descartes, Meditations: September 13, 2007 • Meditations I: He wants to refute the skeptic o the skeptic says we can’t know anything: 1. If S knows that P, then it is not possible that S is mistaken in 1....
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2008 for the course PHIL 110 taught by Professor Jillnorth during the Fall '07 term at Yale.

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PHIL 110 Notes - What is Knowledge 10:31:00 ← ← We are...

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