3-7 - Earthquakes Locating and Measuring 2008-03-10...

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Earthquakes – Locating and Measuring 16:49 Magnitude Energy released by earthquake travels in waves. Amount of energy reflected in wave height (amplitude) on seismogram energy released covers a large range The strongest quakes release ~32 billion times more energy than the weakest A linear magnitude scale would be: 1 to 32,000,000, 000 This range can be simply expressed as exponential numbers 10 0 = 1 10 9 = 1 billion A logarithm of an exponential number reduces to the exponent -log10 0 = 0 -log10 9 = 9 * On a log scale, each whole number reflects a 10-fold increase in the actual value . Magnitude Scales Richter scale: a logarithmic scale to compare sizes of earthquakes. Calculated from the amplitude of the largest seismic wave recorded. Calculation takes into account distance from epicenter. Moment Magnitude Using just amplitude and distance underestimates very large quake magnitudes. M W – moment magnitude, takes into account area of fault rupture Seismologist use moment magnitude calculation for large quakes
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3-7 - Earthquakes Locating and Measuring 2008-03-10...

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