Ch 8 BB

Ch 8 BB - Learning Chapter 8 1 Learning How Do We Learn?...

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1 Learning Chapter 8
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2 Learning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Experiments Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov’s Legacy
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3 Learning Operant Conditioning Skinner’s Experiments Extending Skinner’s Understanding Skinner’s Legacy Conditioning
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4 Learning Learning by Observation Bandura’s Experiments Applications of Observational  Learning
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5 Definition Learning  is a   relatively permanent change in an  organism’s behavior due to experience. Learning is more flexible in comparison to the  genetically-programmed behaviors of Chinooks, for  example.
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6 How Do We Learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally  connect events that occur in sequence.  Aristotle suggested this law of association 2,000  years ago.  Two-hundred years ago, philosophers John Locke  and David Hume reiterated this law.
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7 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
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8 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
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9 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence.
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10 Response-Consequence Learning Learning to associate a response with a consequence.
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11 Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old  philosophical theories.  However, it was the Russian  physiologist  Ivan Pavlov  who elucidated classical  conditioning. His work provided a basis for later  behaviorists like  John Watson  and  B. F. Skinner. Classical Conditioning
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12 Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus,  US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response,  UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
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13 Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and  the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR).  After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now  Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now  Conditioned Response, CR)
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14 Acquisition Acquisition is the initial stage in classical  conditioning in which an association between a  neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes  place. 1. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the  neutral stimulus needs to come before the  unconditioned stimulus. 2. The time in between the two stimuli should be  about half a second.
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15 Acquisition The CS needs to come  half a second before  the US  for acquisition to occur.
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16 Extinction When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone),  CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually  causes extinction.
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17 Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation)  spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone,  the CR becomes extinct again.
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2008 for the course PGS 101 taught by Professor Blan during the Summer '08 term at ASU.

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Ch 8 BB - Learning Chapter 8 1 Learning How Do We Learn?...

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