Ch 2 BB

Ch 2 BB - Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2 1...

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1 Neuroscience and  Behavior Chapter 2
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2 Neuroscience and Behavior Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The Central Nervous System
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3 Neuroscience and Behavior The Endocrine System The Brain The Tools of Discovery Older Brain Structures The Cerebral Cortex Our Divided Brain Left Brain-Right Brain
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4 Neuron  A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different  parts.
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5 Kinds of Glial Cells Glial cells are like “neural  nannies”—they are the  “glue cells” that guide  neural connections. Astrocytes  provide nutrition  to neurons.  Oligodendrocytes  and  Schwann  cells insulate  neurons as myelin.  Astrocytes
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6 Action Potential A neural impulse. A brief  electrical charge that travels  down an axon and is  generated by the movement  of positively charged atoms  in and out of channels in the  axon’s membrane. 
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7 Depolarization:  Depolarization occurs when positive  ions enter the neuron, making it more prone to firing  an action potential.  Hyperpolarization  occurs when  negative ions enter the neuron, making it less prone  to firing an action potential.
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8 Threshold  Threshold:   Each neuron receives depolarizing and  hyperpolarizing currents from many neurons. When  the depolarizing current (positive ions) minus the  hyperpolarizing current (negative ions) exceed  minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an  action potential.
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9 Refractory Period:  After a neuron fires an action  potential it pauses for a short period to recharge  itself to fire again. Sodium-Potassium Pumps:  Sodium-potassium  pumps pump positive ions out from the inside of the  neuron, making them ready for another action  potential.
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10 Action Potential Properties All-or-None Response:  When the depolarizing  current exceeds the threshold, a neuron will fire.  If  the depolarizing current fails to exceed the threshold,  a neuron will  not  fire. Intensity  of an action potential remains the same  throughout the length of the axon.
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11 Neuron  A nerve cell, or a neuron, consists of many different  parts.
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12 Synapse  Synapse [SIN-aps]   a   junction between the axon tip of  the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of  the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the  synaptic gap  or  cleft.
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13 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters  (chemicals) released from  the sending neuron travel 
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Ch 2 BB - Neuroscience and Behavior Chapter 2 1...

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