Ch 1 BB

Ch 1 BB - 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Chapter 1 2 Thinking Critically The Need for Psychological Science The limits of Intuition and Common Sense The benefits of a Scientific Attitude The Scientific Method 3 Methods Descriptive Methods The Case Study The Survey Naturalistic Observation 4 Methods Correlational Methods Correlation and Causation Illusory Correlation Perceiving Order in Random Events 5 Methods Experimental Methods Exploring Cause and Effect Evaluating Therapies Independent and Dependent Variables 6 Evaluation Statistical Reasoning Describing Data Making Inferences 7 The Need for Psychological Science Intuition & Common Sense Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error. 8 Errors of Common Sense Try this ! Fold a piece of paper (0.1 mm thick) 100 times. How thick will it be? 800,000,000,000,000 times the distance between the sun and the earth. 9 Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet. Hindsight Bias 10 Overconfidence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know. Anagram BARGE GRABE ENTRY ETYRN WATER WREAT How long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams? People said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978). 11 Psychological Science Differentiates between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions. This leads to increased understanding of how people feel (affect), act (behave), and think (cognition) as they do! The ABCs of psychology! 12 The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong). 13 Critical Thinking Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly....
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Ch 1 BB - 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science...

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