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h201-handouts1 - History 201 Hollander Power &...

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Unformatted text preview: History 201 Hollander Power & Civilization Characteristics of civilization: Cities Religious and political institutions Writing systems Increased material complexity Explanations for the rise of civilization: Technological: civilization follows naturally from certain key advances? Material: food surplus permits specialization? Nonmaterial: religion provides a sense of unity & makes organized activity possible? Demographic: population pressure compels development? Chronology: c. 3000 2340 2350 2200 1792 1750 Early Dynastic Age (Sumerian city-states) Sargon!s empire Reign of Hammurabi Terms, People & Places: Sargon Hammurabi Sumeria Cuneiform The Epic of Gilgamesh Further Reading: Diamond, J. M. (1997) Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. Sahlins, M. D. (1972) Stone Age Economics. New York, Aldine. History 201 Hollander Akhenaten c. 3100 - 2686 BCE c. 3100 c. 3100 c. 2686 - 2181 c. 2575 c. 2181 - 2050 c. 2050 - 1786 c. 2055 c. 1786 - 1567 c. 1567 - 1085 c. 1480 - c. 1450 c. 1490 - c. 1468 c. 14?? - 1364 c. 1364 EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD Menes unites Upper & Lower Egypt Hieroglyphics developed OLD KINGDOM (Dynasties 3 6) !Great Pyramid" built FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD Civil war & weak central government. MIDDLE KINGDOM (Dynasties 11 12) Mentuhotep reunifies Egypt SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD Hyksos infiltrate Egypt. NEW KINGDOM (Dynasties 18 20) Reign of Thutmosis III Led 17 campaigns into Palestine and Syria. Regency of Queen Hatshepsut Reign of Amenhotep III Reign of Amenhotep IV begins (textbook has r. 1372 1355) Further Reading: Montserrat, D. (2000) Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. New York, Routledge. Terms: Pharaoh Horus Osiris Isis Ma!at Aten Amen-Re Akhetaten AKA Tell el-Amarna History 201 Hollander Akhenaten!s Family Amenhotep III + Tiye (consort) => Amenhotep IV (AKA Akhenaten) Akhenaten (r. ca. 1353 1336 BCE) + Nefertiti => Meritaten (daughter) Meketaten (daughter) Ankhesenpaaten (daughter) Neferneferuaten (daughter) Neferneferure (daughter) Setepenre (daughter) Akhenaten + Kiya => Tutankhamen AKA Tutankhaten (?) Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure (r. ca. 1336 - ???? BCE) Smenkhkare Ankhkheperure (r. ???? ca. 1332 BCE) + Meritaten Tutankhamen AKA Tutankhaten (r. 1332 1322 BCE) + Ankhesenpaaten History 201 Hollander Collapse Chronology: 1595 - 1158 1550 - 1085 1450 - 1200 1400 - 1200 1050 1020 1000 1000 961 961 922 922 900 - 612 814 722 Kassite Dynasty (Southern Mesopotamia) New Kingdom (Egypt) Hittite Empire (Anatolia) Mycenaeans (Greece) Philistines increasingly powerful in Palestine region. Reign of Saul Reign of David Reign of Solomon Hebrew kingdom splits in two: Israel & Judah Neo-Assyrian Empire Phoenicians found Carthage Assyrians capture Samaria Terms, People & Places: The Sea Peoples Ugarit Troy Peleset Byblos, Sidon & Tyre (Phoenician cities) Why do empires & cultures fall? Warfare Migration Natural disaster Systems collapse Technological change What are the consequences? Further Reading: Drews, R. (1993) The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. Princeton, Princeton University Press. History 201 Hollander Near Eastern Empires Chronology: 1115 1077 900 612 883 859 858 823 744 727 725 721 721 705 704 681 680 669 680 546 669 627 626 539 625 550 612 560 546 557 330 557 530 530 522 522 486 Reign of Tiglath-Pileser I Neo-Assyrian Empire Reign of Assurnasirpal II Reign of Shalmaneser III Reign of Tiglath-Pileser III Reign of Shalmaneser V Reign of Sargon II Reign of Sennacherib Reign of Esarhaddon Lydian Empire Reign of Assurbanipal Neo-Babylonian Empire Median Empire Medes & Babylonians take Nineveh Reign of Croesus Persian Empire Reign of Cyrus !the Great" Reign of Cambyses Reign of Darius Terms, People & Places: Assur Nineveh A. H. Layard (1817 1894) Elamites/Elam Chaldeans/Neo-Babylonians Satrap/Satrapy Royal Road History 201 Hollander Sparta 2000 - 1450 1600 - 1100 c. 1450 c. 1200 1100 - 750 750 - 500 740 - 720 c. 650 Minoan Civilization Mycenaean Civilization Mycenaeans take Crete The Catastrophe The !Dark Age" The Archaic Age First Messenian War Second Messenian War Terms, People & Places: Arthur Evans Minoans Knossos Linear A Mycenaeans Linear B Phoenicians Polis Hoplite Pheidon of Argos Phalanx Messenia Lycurgus Gerousia Ephors Apella Spartiates Perioeci Helots Agoge Krypteia History 201 Hollander Athens Chronology: c. 621 c. 594 c. 561 - 56 546 - 527 527 - 510 508 507 487 482 471 462 451 Draco reforms Athenian law code Solon institutes debt relief at Athens Peisistratus tyrant of Athens Peisistratus tyrant of Athens Hippias tyrant of Athens Isagoras archon Reforms of Cleisthenes Ostracism of Hipparchos Ostracism of Aristides !the Just" Ostracism of Themistocles Ephialtes weakens the Areopagus Council Citizenship Law of Pericles Terms, People & Places: Theseus Basileus Archon Areopagus Council Eupatridai Hektemoroi Pentakosiomedimnoi Hippies Zeugitai Thetes Boule Prytaneis Ostracism Strategoi History 201 Hollander Philip & Alexander Chronology: c. 557 - 530 530 - 522 522 - 486 499 - 493 490 480 479 477 431 - 404 404 - 371 390 371 362 c. 360 - 336 338 336 - 323 334 333 331 Reign of Cyrus 'the Great' Reign of Cambyses Reign of Darius Ionian Revolt Battle of Marathon (Athens defeats Persians) Battles of Thermopylae & Salamis Battles of Plataea & Mycale Delian League created The Peloponnesian War (Sparta eventually defeats Athens) Spartan hegemony Iphicrates defeats a small Spartan force at Lechaion Battle of Leuctra (Thebes defeats Sparta) Battle of Mantinea (Thebes defeats Sparta, Athens, et al.) Reign of Philip II Battle of Chaironea (Macedon defeats Athens, Thebes etc.) Reign of Alexander Battle of Granicus Battle of Issus Battle of Gaugamela Terms, People & Places: Satrap Hegemony Peltasts The Sacred Band Sarissa Hetairoi Pezhetairoi Memnon History 201 Hollander Hellenistic Philosophy Socrates (c. 470 - 399 BCE) Plato (c. 428 - 347 BCE) Aristotle (384 - 322 BCE) Epicurus (341 - 270 BCE) Epicureanism The swerve Zeno of Citium (335 - 263 BCE) Stoicism Empiricism Diogenes of Sinope (400 c. 320 BCE) Cynicism Pyrrho of Elis (c. 365 - 275 BCE) Scepticism Agnosticism Arcesilaus (316/5 242/1 BCE) Carneades (c. 214 - 129 BCE) Platonism Neoplatonism Plotinus (c. 205 - 269 CE) Further Reading: Long, A. A. & D. N. Sedley (1987) The Hellenistic Philosophers. Volume 1 Translations of the Principal Sources with Philosophical Commentary, Cambridge University Press. ...
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