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study_guide_midterm__2_last_draft__S_08 - HP 400 Borovay...

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HP 400 Borovay MIDTERM #2 Study Guide 3/29/08 The midterm will cover the material presented in PowerPoint lectures, textbook reading assignments, and student class presentations for Classes #12 [2/27/08] through #18 [3/26/08] A. Lectures and Readings about Global HIV/AIDS 1. International perspectives on HIV/AIDS a. Be familiar with the material in the PowerPoint lecture on HIV/AIDS: what it is; what it does to the body; how it is transmitted HIV/AIDS Collection of symptoms and infections resulting from damage to the immune system by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Late stage of the condition leaves a person with a weakened immune system and susceptible to opportunistic infections Transmission is through direct contact with mucous membrane or a bodily fluid containing HIV: Blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, breast milk Also through anal, vaginal, or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding b. Know what parts of the world are most impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic Mortality rates started to fall around 1996 as new drug treatments became available in more affluent areas of the world. This has resulted in more people living longer with HIV/AIDS However, in less wealthy regions, mortality, mortality is still high Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst affected region of the world. 1/3 of world HIV/AIDS deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa c. know what segments of the populations HIV/AIDS generally affects, and understand how that impacts a country’s society and economy Older people are at greater risk because of their weaker immune systems People with less access to health care will progress more rapidly Children—creates many orphans d. Know why treatment and the development of a vaccine for HIV/AIDS are especially difficult High mutation rate, making treatment difficult and development of possible vaccines very difficult 1
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e. Know what the average length of time is between infection with HIV and development of AIDS and the median survival time after developing AIDS Without antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection progresses to AIDS in nine or ten years Median survival time after developing AIDS is 9 months However, rate of progression varies widely between individuals, depending on their body’s ability to defend itself against HIV f. know the CDC’s criteria for a definition of AIDS All HIV-infected people who have fewer than 200 CD4+ T cells per cubic millimeter of blood” (compared with 1,000 in healthy adults) g. Be familiar with the risk factors for HIV/AIDS High risk sex: Multiple sex partners, sex with partners of unknown HIV status, lack of condom use Other STDs Handling blood on routine basis: Doctors, nurses, lab techs, funeral workers Hemophiliacs Blood transfusions before 1985 Use of unsterilized needles: Piercings or tattoos, IV drug users Infants with HIV-positive mothers Active tuberculosis h. know what “opportunistic infections” are in HIV/AIDS
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