Midterm #1 Study Guide 2008
From Lectures and Textbook Assignments for Classes # 1 and 2
Be able to define the term “culture” as presented in the lecture on “Introduction to
A set of guidelines which tells us how to view the world, how to experience it
emotionally, and how to behave in it.
These guidelines are transmitted from one
generation to another by the use of language, symbols, art, and rituals.
Know how culture can be protective against disease
Elements of culture can be factors in the development and course of disease, or
they can provide protection against disease. E.g. Male immigrants from Japan to
Hawaii and California were found to have differing rates of CHD, although they
were genetically similar. Rates of CHD increased for the men in Hawaii, and
increased even more for the men in California, with lifestyle changes.
Know what a “Risk Factor” and a “Protective Factor” are.
A risk factor is a reliable positive association
between some factor (behavior,
condition, etc.) and a given disease, injury, or illness. E.g. Toboacca use and
exposure can increase the risk of CVD, Cancer and Diabetes
A protective factor is a factor whose presence “reduces” the likelihood of
disease, injury, or illness. E.g. Dietary practices, gender, social and religious
views, and physical activity.
From the textbook, Chapter 1: “The Future of the World’s Health”, know what
four challenges the author lists for improving the world’s health in the 21
century [pp. 6-9]
#1: A need to reduce greatly the burdens of excess mortality and morbidity
suffered by the poor. Focus more on interventions that we know can achieve the
greatest health gain possible within prevailing resource limits.
#2: A need to counter potential threats to health resulting from economic crises,
unhealthy environments and risky behavior. Promotion of healthy lifestyles
underpins a proactive strategy for risk reduction, example: cleaner air water,
adequate sanitation, healthy diets and safer transportation.
#3: A need to develop more effective health systems. The health systems need to
improve health status reduce health inequalities, enhance responsiveness to
legitimate expectations, increase efficiency, protect ppl from financial loss and
enhance fairness in delivery of health care.
#4: Need to invest in expanding knowledge base that made the 20
health revolution possible and provide the tools for continued gains in the new
From the Lectures for Classes #3-4
From the lecture titled “Global Mortality”: