Zumdahl Chapter 13 lecture notes

Zumdahl Chapter 13 lecture notes - Chapter 13. Bonding...

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Basic concepts of bonding including the Leonard – Jones potential, electronegativity, ionization, and electron affinity. Spectrum of bonding (covalent/ionic) Lewis Structures. Resonance and formal charges. Characteristics of polar bonds and polar molecules. VSEPR (molecular shape). Chapter 13. Bonding
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Electrons can be divided into: Core electrons (e - in a filled shells) Valence electrons (e - in unfilled shells, outermost electrons) Valence electrons participate in bonding through: Sharing of e - by atoms: covalent bonding Transfer of e - from one atom to another: ionic bonding Core Electrons vs Valence Electrons
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What is a Chemical Bond? (1) Bonding is the force of attraction that holds atoms together in an element (N 2 ) or compound (CO 2 or NaCl). The distances between bonded atoms are less than between non-bonded atoms. The forces between bonded atoms are greater than between non-bonded atoms. The principal types of bonding are ionic, covalent, and metallic.
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What is a Chemical Bond? (2) There is a chemical bond between two atoms or groups of atoms in case that the forces acting between them are such as to lead to the formation of an aggregate with sufficient stability to make it convenient for the chemist to consider it as an independent "molecular species” PAULING (1967).
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What is a Bond? (3)
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Atoms or molecules approach from large separation – zero initial Potential Energy PE goes negative ( attractive force) PE minimum energy, attraction equals the repulsion. PE goes positive as repulsive forces dominate Bonding
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Ionic bonds are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons 09/24/08 Zumdahl Chapter 13 7 Na · Na + + e - Loss of a valence electron e - + Cl Gain of a valence electron : Cl : . . . . - : Cl : . . . . - + Na + NaCl Combination to form the compound NaCl Ionic Bonds
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The energy of interaction between a pair of ions can be calculated by using Coulomb's law 1 2 4 Q Q V r πε = o Ionic Bonds :
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Cations (+): smaller than parent atom Anions (-): larger than parent atom Isoelectronic series: O 2- F - Na + Mg 2+ Al 3+ Ionic Radii In picometers As Z, the nuclear charge, increases the atomic radii decreases Sizes of Ions
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Sizes of ions
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Electrons are shared by two (or more) nuclei 09/24/08 Zumdahl Chapter 13 11 Valence electrons in a compound are usually distributed in such a way that each main-group element (except hydrogen) is surrounded by eight electrons (an octet of electrons ). Hydrogen has two electrons . H:Cl: ·· ·· ·Cl: ·· ·· or H―Cl: ·· ·· Covalent Bonds
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the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons. Shared electrons are closer to atoms with greater electronegativity. Trends in EN
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Zumdahl Chapter 13 lecture notes - Chapter 13. Bonding...

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