Zumdahl Chapter 4 lecture notes

Zumdahl Chapter 4 lecture notes - Chapter 4 Types of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Liquid of Life 4.2 Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations (skip) 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations (skip) Water, the Liquid of Life (part 1) QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Water is polar . In a water molecule, each oxygen atom is partially negative. Each hydrogen atom is partially positive. This phenomenon is called charge separation. . Oxygen is an electron hog. It does not share electrons well with other atoms. Oxygen takes more than its share of electron density, that is why it has a partial negative charge. The hydrogen atoms are stripped of much of their electron density and so carry a partial positive charge. QuickTime F and a decompressor are needed to see this p In liquid water and especially in solid water, the molecules interact strongly with each other, with preferred orientations. Water, the Liquid of Life (part 2) Water has all sort of strange and unusual properties. 1) Its density decreases when it freezes (ice floats). 2) It has a very high boiling point and high heat of vaporization. 3) It has high surface tension. 4) It dissolves many salts (like sodium chloride) and polar molecules (like ethanol). 5) It does not dissolve non-polar substances (oil and water dont mix). 6) It has very high heat capacity 6) In the presence of amphipaths, it readily forms compartments (like in cells). 7) Where there is liquid water, there is life (I bet). QuickTime x and decompressor are needed to see th QuickTime 2 and a decompres or are ne ded to se this picture. QuickTime 2 and decompressor are needed to see thi Water, the Liquid of Life (part 3) Water dissolves NaCl. NaCl dissolves in water. This means that water and NaCl mix at the level of individual ions and molecules. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. A solution may exist in any phase. Water is the solvent The solvent is the component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount. NaCl is the solute The solute is the substance that is dissolved in a solution. Pairs of liquids that mix in any proportion are miscible . Liquids that do not mix are immiscible. Ice Ionic Compounds (Salts) Contain charged atoms or groups of atoms. Cations: Na + , K + , Mg 2+ Ca 2+ , NH 4 + Anions: Cl- , F- , SO 4 2- PO 4 3- Ionic Compounds in Water: All ionic compounds are solids (salts) in the range of temperature in which water is a liquid. They have rigid lattices in which strong electrostatic forces (ionic bonds) pin the constituent ions in place....
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Zumdahl Chapter 4 lecture notes - Chapter 4 Types of...

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