Zumdahl Chapter 12 lecture notes

Zumdahl Chapter 12 lecture notes - Chapter 12 Quantum...

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Chapter 12 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory 12.1 Introduce the concept of Electromagnetic radiation and important fundamentals that will be applied to the quantum mechanical model. 12.2 Discuss early theories about the nature of matter. 12.3 Present the atomic spectrum for hydrogen and discuss line spectra. 12.4 Outline Bohr’s Theory and explain its fundamental flaws. 12.5 Introduce the quantum mechanical model. 12.6 Provide a qualitative description of the solutions of the Schrodinger equation including the fundamental descriptions of quantum numbers. 12.7 Incorporate the use of electron configurations to describe representative locations of electrons within atoms and ions. 12.8 Include a discussion of Aufbau, Pauli, and Hund’s work toward the development of quantum models and electron configurations. 12.9 Discuss Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties
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PRS I am here 1) Yes 2) No 3) Don’t know
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PRS I am very excited to be learning about quantum mechanics 1) Yes 2) No 3) Don’t know
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Waves and Light “A Light Version” Electromagnetic Radiation Energy travels through space as electromagnetic radiation Examples: visible light, microwave radiation, radio waves, X-rays, infra-red radiation, UV radiation All travel as waves All travel at the speed of light (duh, it is light)
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Light consists of waves of oscillating electric (E) and magnetic fields (H) that are perpendicular to one another and to the direction of propagation of the light. c = λν c = 3 x 10 8 m/s λ = wavelength (lambda) ν = frequency (nu) Electromagnetic Radiation
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400 nm (violet) The visible spectrum 700 nm (red) Electromagnetic Spectrum
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Important Equations c = λν ( c=lambda nu) c = 3 x 10 8 m per second λ = wavelength [m, nm (10 -9 m), Å (10 -10 m)] ν = frequency (Hz = s -1 ) E = h ν ( E=h nu) h = Planck’s constant h = 6.62 x 10 -34 J s or h = 6.62 x 10 -34 kg m 2 s -1
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Radio Waves AM 890 kHz 890,000 waves per second Wavelength is 337 meters (about 1/5 mile) FM 99.1 MHz 99,100,000 waves per second Wavelength is 3 meters (about 10 feet) c = λν
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Problem The X-ray generator in Loren Williams’ lab produces x- radiation with wavelength of 1.54 Å (0.1 nm = 1 Å). What is the frequency of the X-rays? What is the energy of each X-ray photon? c = λν E = hν
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X-rays X-rays were discovered in 1895 by German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. He received a Nobel Prize in 1901. A week after his discovery, Roentgen took an x-ray image of his wife’s hand, visualizing the bones of her fingers and her wedding ring - the world’s first x-ray image. Roentgen ‘temporarily’ used the term “x”-ray to indicate the unknown nature of this radiation. Max von Laue (Nobel Prize 1914) showed that x-rays are electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light, but with higher frequency (and higher energy) and smaller wavelength. Within a few months of Roentgen’s discovery, doctors in New York used x-rays to image broken bones.
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c = λν E = hν Problem The laser in an audio compact disc (CD) player produces light with a wavelength of 780 nm. What is the frequency of the light emitted from the laser?
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Problem The brilliant red color seen in fireworks displays is due to 4.62 x 10 14 s -1 strontium emission. Calculate the wavelength of the light emitted.
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Zumdahl Chapter 12 lecture notes - Chapter 12 Quantum...

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