Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study...

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PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study Guide Be prepared to answer questions similar to the following: 1. What is the difference between a consequentialist moral theory and a deontological moral theory? 2. What makes something good according to a cultural relativist? 3. What does a Utilitarian mean by “net happiness”? 4. What makes an act right or wrong according to act utilitarianism? 5. What is the only thing good without qualification according to Kant? 6. What is Kant’s name for the one moral law? State the two formulations of it that we learned. 7. What is a maxim? 8. What is Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean? Apply this doctrine to the virtue of courage. 9. Consider the views of John Finnis, Michael Tooley, and Judith Jarvis Thomson. Which of these philosophers thinks that a fetus is a person at 1
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Which do not? Which of these thinks that abortion is never permissible? Always permissible? Sometimes permissible? 10. What is an “active potentiality” according to John Finnis? 11. Why does Finnis think that a fetus is a person (and therefore has a right to life) beginning at conception? 12. What does Finnis think about prenatal screening and genetic testing? In what situations does he consider it impermissible? 13. What is Michael Tooley’s example of the kittens receiving injections (see page 36)? What is it intended to show? Do you think this example succeeds as an attack on the potentiality principle? 14. What does Tooley think it means to have a right to something? What must be the case if something is to have a right to life? What qualities or abilities must something possess to have a right to life? Do fetuses have a right to life? Do newborn humans? Might some adult members of other species have a right to life? 15. Explain Judith Jarvis Thomson’s famous example of the violinist. What point about the right to life of a fetus and the rights of a mother is she trying to make with the example? 16. Explain the difference between a “Good Samaritan” and a “Minimally Decent Samaritan” for Thomson. What would each do in the case of the violinist? 17. Apply the Good Samaritan and Minimally Decent Samaritan distinction to cases of abortion. When is abortion permissible for Thomson? Explain this in terms of the two types of Samaritans. 2
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2008 for the course PHIL 2025 taught by Professor Worrel during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Midterm Study Guide - PHIL 2025-001 Midterm Exam Study...

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