Biol 1001 Lesson 4

Biol 1001 Lesson 4 - Biology 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173...

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Biology 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173 Lesson 4: The Working Cell 1) State the First and second laws of thermodynamics. Give a biological example of each. 1 st Law – Energy can be transformed and transferred, it can’t be created nor destroyed Ex.) A green plant converts sunlight into chemical energy. It doesn’t create energy. 2 nd Law – Energy conversions reduce order of the universe and increase its entropy. Ex.) When energy is converted; energy is lost to the surrounding causing more disorder 2) Make a chart to contrast exergonic and endergonic reactions in two ways. Give a biological example of each. Exergonic Endergonic Releases energy to surroundings Absorbs energy from the surrounding Products have less potential energy than the reactants. Reactants yield products that contain high potential energy. 3) Draw and label an enzyme substrate reaction. List three factors that can affect enzyme activity. Three factors that can affect enzyme activity are: temperature, salt concentration, and pH.
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Biology 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173 4) How are cofactors different from coenzymes? Draw and label two types of enzymatic inhibitors and briefly explain a positive and negative use for each. Cofactors are inorganic compounds and coenzymes are organic molecules.
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Biology 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173 5) How is ATP related to phosphorylation? In phosphorylation, a cell transfers a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecule. This process helps energize molecules that are depended upon on doing most cellular work. 6) Draw and label a cell membrane. How does its arrangement of phospholipids determine the permeability of molecules? The phospholipids form a bilayer structure in which the exterior is hydrophilic and the interior is hydrophobic. The interior makes it harder for polar molecules and ions, who are hydrophilic, to pass through the interior. Whether these molecules pass rely on which proteins are present in the phospholipid bilayer. Nonpolar molecules can pass through the membrane rather easily though the membrane because they are hydrophobic. 7) What is the importance of the following to the cell membrane? A. cholesterol – helps stabilize the phospholipids at body temperature and also helps keep the membrane fluid at a lower temperature B. gylcolipids/glycoproteins – work as cell identification tags that other cells can recognized. This ability allows cells to sort themselves into tissues and organs. This also helps the immune system recognize and reject foreign cells, like bacteria.
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Biol 1001 Lesson 4 - Biology 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173...

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