chapter 3 bio - Characteristics Nonpolar electrons are...

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Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Why Care? Olestra- fake fat Saccharin – fake sweeteners Aspartame – fake sweetener Sucralose – fake sweetener Most biological molecules are carbon based Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds and makes lots of compound; functional groups Organic compound contain C and H Fixal group give different molecules specific properties How are organic molecules synthesized? Organic Molecules: 1. use the same functional group 2. formed by modular approach Stick subunits together like cars in a train Dehydration assembles polymers Hydrolysis breaks polymers apart Types of organic compounds 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Monosaccharide – 1 sugar
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Disaccharide – 2 sugars Polysaccharides – many sugars, long term Energy storage (starch) Structural (cellulose) Structural polysaccharides: Cellulose ex) paper, fiber from (fruit and vegetables) Chitin In exoskeletons and fungus cell walls N – Containing functional groups (athletes foot, roaches) Lipids Types Oils, fats, waxes Phospholipids – membranes and hormones
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Unformatted text preview: Characteristics Nonpolar: electrons are shared equally Hydrophobic Types of Lipids: Triglycerides Solid fats and liquid oils 3 fatty acids and glycerol( 3-carbon alcohol) Phospholipids Polar and Nonpolar Mostly in cell membranes 1 glycerol, 2 FA, and polar group Steroids Complex ring forms Steroid hormones estrogen; testosterone Proteins Amino acid polymers Many roles in cells Joined by peptide bonds by dehydration reaction Different proteins have different amino acids Levels of protein structure Primary: link amino acids by peptides bonds Secondary: coiling, it bonds Tertiary: bending long-distance interactions disulfide or H-bonds Quaternary: 2 or more chains together Nucleic Acids Polymers of nucleotides DNA and RNA: function in genetics Other types of nucleotides function in cell control Nucleotides 5 carbon sugar, phosphate, base Nucleic Acid molecules Genetic info in order of bases Connected by sugar-phosphate “backbone”...
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