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Complete Study Guide Test 1

Complete Study Guide Test 1 - Test 1 Study Guide(Micro...

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Test 1 Study Guide (Micro 305 (Section 002), Fall Semester of 2008 Calvin Schoulties, Professor August 22 nd Lecture: Chapter 1, pp. 10-23 1. List five contribution s of Pasteur to the science of microbiology. Pasturization, showed microorganisms not spontaneous, role of yeast in alcohlic fermentation, latic acid fermentation, rabies vacine What century and what quarter of that century did Pasteur do his work? 19 th century Why is Pasteur associated with pioneering the area of industrial microbiology. Role in pasturization and studying fermentation 2. What is an attenuated virus? A weakend virus, less potent, vaccine How did Pasteur successfully use attenuation to save the life of a boy bitten by a rabid dog? From drying out brain and spinal cord of infected rabit, used to inject boy and saved life 3. What are the contributions of Robert Hooke( First to make microscope and study microorganism-multicellular- fungus) and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek( first to observe and study bacteria) . What century and quarter of that century did they do their work? 17 th century end of century 4. What is the contribution of Edward Jenner? Smallpox vacine What century and what quarter of that century did he do his most famous work. End of 18 th century What area of microbiology did Jenner pioneer? Vaccination procedure 5. What is the relevance of Joseph Lister’s contribution to surgery. Devopled method preventing wounds from being infected What century and what quarter of a century did he do his work? mid 19 th century What indirect evidence did his procedure provide that germs caused disease. Patients had fewer post-op infections. 6. Sergei Winogradsky and Martinus Beijerinck pioneered what area of microbiology? Microbial diversity in ecology What is chemolithotrophy? From of metabolism in which inorganic compinds used to generate energy They developed and used enrichment cultures. What is an enrichment culture? the use of selective culture media and incubation conditions to isolate specific micro organisms from natural samples 7. Pasteur conducted an experiment that led to the downfall of the Theory of Spontaneous Generation. Why do you think that this simple experiment disproved Spontaneous Generation for microbes? Showed proof that pathogens do not spontaneously originate What is the significance of the oddly shaped “goose-necked” flask used in the experiment? Allowed air in but not particles from air 8. What are Koch’s 4 postulates relative to disease causation. 1. Suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent in healthy animals. 2. The suspected organisms should be grown in pure culture. 3. Cells from a pure culture of the suspected organism should cause disease in healthy animal. 4. Organism should be reisolated and shown to be same as original.
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