341 final

341 final - Ch. 15Retardation, Autistic and PDDs Mental...

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Ch. 15—Retardation, Autistic and PDDs Mental retardation—3 criteria Significant limitations in intellectual functioning IQ ~70 or below. Significant limitations in adaptive functioning Onset before age 18 You’ve got to have all three—IQ of 68 is fine if you have adapted a way of coping. Causes of Mental Retardation-- There are cases with clear environmental causes About ¼ of cases have known biological causes Those with known biological causes tend to be the more severe Biological Causal Factors Direct Insult to embryo/fetus Infections/infectious diseases Exposure to toxins Other perinatal or postnatal environmental insults (malnutrition, anoxia) Specific Biological Factors Down Syndrome : Caused by extra 21 st chromosome (Trisomy 21) Typically fall in moderate to severe range Associated with a range of physical problems/vulnerabilities Risk increases as mother’s age increases (1% after age 40) Anoxia during birth Genetic disorders: Recessive traits, relatively rare May be associated with certain ethnic groups May be associated directly with MR May be associated with problems that could cause MR Anoxia during birth Treatment Hard to resolve the core problems, but— Prevention works well, and deficits can be supported. Treatment Options Early ident and intervention Optimizing school/social environments School based programs can provide support, tailored education Autism and PDDs— PDDs fall on a spectrum—autism at the extreme end. Autism—
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Three symptom clusters: Impairments in social interaction Impairment in communication Odd, stereotyped, or restricted pattern of interests/behavior Social Impairments wInability to relate to others wIndifference/lack of interest in others wLack of social or emotional reciprocity wSpecific behaviors such as avoiding eye contact, shrinking or recoiling from physical contact Communication Impairments Delayed or absent language (particularly expressive) Lack of interest in communication Limited nonverbal communication May have odd use of language if present stereotyped behavior Odd motor behaviors Rigid adherence to routine/distress if violated Focus on parts of objects/toys Fascination with spinning items Associated features Sensory sensitivities (e.g., noises, textures) Self-injurious behaviors (head-banging, biting) Savant abilities (memory, drawing, numerical ability) are rare Mental retardation (75%) Epidemiology of PDDs Rare Disorder: a handful (2-5) in 10,000 have Autism (DSM), though recent reported rates vastly higher 4-5 times more common in males All PDDs: 20-30 in 10,000 (Though some estimates are much higher) Other PDDS wPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified nNot all three clusters or not severe enough symptoms wAsperger’s Disorder nSocialization and Stereotyped/restricted behavior clusters only; normal intelligence Etiology of PDDs We don’t know what causes Autism or PDDs The vaccine controversy—No scientific evidence relates PDDs to vaccines
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2008 for the course PSYCH 341 taught by Professor Aaron during the Fall '08 term at UVA.

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341 final - Ch. 15Retardation, Autistic and PDDs Mental...

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