Lecture 3 - Lecture 3 Introduction to Chimpanzees 09:10:00...

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Lecture 3 23/09/2008 09:10:00 Introduction to Chimpanzees Why Stuy Chimpanzees? LCA (last common ancestor) reconstruction o Ecology  o Behavior o Life history Comparison w/human o We can determine which human traits are uniquely human and which  are results of being humans o Cognition o Empathy o Prosociality- why we have a tendency to be nice to one another and to  strangers  o Social bonds  The argument that  Pan  is similar to the LCA There is still debate as to whether chimps are good model for the LCA LCA somewhere between 5 and 8 million years ago (mya) Based on genetic info it’s clear that gorillas diverged before chimp/human  spilt There is little change in Chimpanzee morphology over time (showing they are  morphologically very similar to the LCA) Early austalopithecines had chimp-like features (theyw ere bipedal so there  were changes, but they had long arms, small chimp like cranium, etc.) What about bonobos?
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In some ways you can say we are equally related to chimps since we  diverged from them around the same time period ago; it’s tempting to say that  we are Bonobos are more nice (less aggressive); they engage in more  unconventional sex; they have stronger female-female bonds; don’t hunt very  much Chimps are more aggressive; they hunt; strong male-male alliances; lots of  different habitats; tool use They use systematics to determine the state of the LCA; so they use a  homologous character to determine the LCA o For example, comparing that structure of their 3 rd  molar;  o The trait we use is relative cranium size o Which species have similar cranium: body ratios? o The pattern can help determine the likely phenotype of the LCA Relative Cranium Size Chimps are like little Gorillas (if you blow them up, they have similar skull to  body size) Compared to the other living great apes, bonobos have small skulls relative to  their mass; which means that they are following a different developmental  trajectory than other great apes It must be a derived pattern in bonobos H(Human), B(bonobo); C(chimp) What are bonobos paedomorphic ( juvenification) ? Reduced feeding competition relative to chimpanzees
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o No gorillas to compete with in the area they live in Larger, more stable parties  o Because feeding competition was reduced Selection for reduced aggression, similar to domestication?
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