~Core Essay: Civil War andReconstruction~ 1860-1877Introduction: ~Notes~ ★The era of the Civil War and Reconstruction ○turning point in the history of the United States. ★Longstanding tensions over slavery and westward expansion reached their climax when 11 states decided to leave the United States and form their own nation. ★The pending conflict took on revolutionary dimensions as southern slaves refused to cooperate with the Confederacy, and the US government realized it must destroy slavery to win the war. ○The war formally ended with a Union victory in spring 1865, but many more years of violent conflict ensued. ★A newly empowered federal government passed 3 constitutional amendments in an attempt to abolish slavery and establish the nation on a new and more democratic footing. ○Yet many Americans rejected the federal government's growing commitment to protecting the rights of all citizens ★By the 1870s, leading politicians prioritized economic growth over the rights and well being of American citizens. ○But economic growth did not benefit all equally. ★Most African Americans, Native Americans, and the industrial working class suffered from low wages and poor living conditions. ○Nevertheless, the nation that ultimately emerged from this contentious period was stronger and more stable than ever before. Section 2: Reconstruction Question:Who were the major players in the Reconstruction Era and what were their positions? Terms: ●Appomattox Court House, Virginia ●The 13th Amendment ●Freedmen's Bureau ●Andrew Johnson ~Notes~
★The most famous image of the end of the Civil War is Robert E. Lee'ssurrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. ○Lee promised that his army of about 28,000 would lay down its arms and go home ■at a ceremony days later, Union forces saluted the defeated Southerners as they disbanded. ★Violent conflict and constitutional crisis continued as Americans argued over fundamental questions about democracy, rights, and power. ★In the South, former slaves were for the first time part of that debate, as they struggled to establish new terms of labor and land ownership and fashion themselves as citizens of their communities and the nation. ★The war's final months were chaotic and ambiguous. ○Just 6 days after Lee's surrender at Appomattox, Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Boothassassinated President Lincoln. ★Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy, urged Confederate soldiers to fight on, and several generals held out well into May. ★The US Army began to demobilize its forces, but kept about 200,000 soldiers in the former Confederate states to ensure that the rebellion was over. ★Amid that occupying force were some 83,000 African American men in uniform, concrete evidence of the radical turn the war had taken.