EFFECT OF VBALL - THE EFFECT OF MOVEMENT IMAGERY TRAINING...

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THE EFFECT OF MOVEMENT IMAGERY TRAINING ON LEARNING FOREARM PASS IN VOLLEYBALL DR KHITAM MOUSA AY DR RAMI SALEH HALAWEH DR MOHAMMAD ABU AL-TAIEB This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on leaming the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups, experimental group (n=12) received both physical practice of the skill and mental imagery training units and control group (n=12) received only physical practice of the skill. Statistical analysis included t-Test for mean at pre and post test for the two groups, and t-Test for mean at post test in the two groups. The re- sults showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in post test between the two groups in favor of the experimental group. Learning a new motor skill through mental movement imagery training and physical prac- tice enhanced leaming and improved performance more than physical practice of the skill alone. In eonclusions, the combination of mental movement imagery and physical practice enhaneed learning and im- proved motor skill performance. Keywords: Movement Imagery Questionnaire, physical practice, men- tal Imagery training, Leaming skills. Introduction the leamer attempts to imitate an observed The execution of any new motor skill al- ^'^^'°" °^ ^•^'^ performed by another individ- ways depends on leaming, specifically, it re- "^' (McCullagh &Weiss, 2001). A similar quires the accumulation of new knowledge to technique, also based on the execution of the be retained in procedural memory as a result ^^^^ ^y ^" expert, is the modeling of a motor of practice. Thus, new motor skills are gener- Performance through video recording in lieu ated on the basis of previously leamed actions °^ ^ ^^^^^ demonsfration. This is especially (Ofla, 1998). useful when the leamer needs to visualize Currently, there are different forms of the complete set of combined movements re- fraining by means of which leaming of a mo- ^^"^^ ^"^ *e instructor cannot demonsfrate tor skill can be improved. Modeling, or direct *^ ^^^^ directly (Knapp, 1981 ). demonsfration, for example, modeling is one ^ ° * *^^e fraining procedures stem from of the most usual forms of giving instmction Sheffield's (1961) theory of symbolic repre- during the leaming of a motor task (Gómez, sentation, which states that when a person 2003). By means of modeling, the novice observes a demonsfration of a motor skill, quickly forms an idea or cognitive image of ^" ™^8^ ^^ encoded in memory that consists the movement to be executed. Modeling has ^^ ^ sequence of perceptual and symbolic been defined as a cognitive process in which responses, which later will allow an effective execution of the same pattem. According to 227
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228 / Education Vol. 134 No. 2 Bandura (1986), more recently a training technique known as mental imagery (mental- ly repeating physical actions) has been most- ly studied within the specific field of spori psychology, and the more general field of
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