Immune Disorders - Immune Disorders o Hypersensitivity disorders o Autoimmune diseases o Immunodeficiency disorders Pharmacotherapy for Immune Disorders

Immune Disorders - Immune Disorders o Hypersensitivity...

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Immune Disorders o Hypersensitivity disorders o Autoimmune diseases o Immunodeficiency disorders Pharmacotherapy for Immune Disorders o Vaccines o Hepatitis B vaccine o Immune Globulin Preparations o Immunostimulants o Interferon alfa-2b (Intron-A) o Immunosuppressants o Calcineurin inhibitors Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) Pathophysiology of Inflammation, Inflammatory Response and Fever o Inflammation o The general signs and symptoms of inflammation serve as a warring of a problem, which may be hidden within the body o Inflammation is not the same as infection o Infection: microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi are always present at the site causing the inflammation. o Edema o Fever o A natural defense mechanism o Helps neutralize foreign organisms o Can lead to seizure or break down body tissues, decrease mental acuity, lead to delirium or coma o Usually due to infectious processes o Drugs/medications can be the source of fever o Can be fatal o Most commonly: source of fever o Anti-invective’s- pyrogens released by bacteria o Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)- mental health o Antipsychotic drugs (NMS) o Anesthetics- malignant hyperthermia o Immunomodulators o Cytotoxic drugs o Neutropenic drugs Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Inflammation o Anti-inflammatory drugs Ibuprofen (Advil) Primary drugs for treatment of mild to moderate inflammation
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Work by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis All exhibit analgesic and antipyretic actions Include aspirin, ibuprofen, and COX-2 inhibitors All have about same efficacy- side effect profiles differ Take with food- upset stomach Anticoagulants- increases platelet clotting; puts patient at risk for bleed o Corticosteroids Prednisone (Solumedrol) Most Effective medications for treating severe inflammation Naturally released from adrenal cortex Affect inflammatory response in several ways Suppress histamine and prostaglandins Can inhibit immune system (lymphocytes/phagocytes) to reduce inflammation Can mask infections Creates potential for existing infection to grow rapidly and undetected Contraindicated in active infections Long-term use of steroids involves the effect of increased intake of glucocorticoids on the normal feedback mechanism in the body, leading to the reduction of the normal secretion of the natural hormones and atrophy of the adrenal gland. Sudden cessation of the administration of glucocorticoid drugs or the presences of increased stress may cause adrenal crisis (similar to shock) because insufficient glucocorticoids are available in the body.
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