chapter 35 outline.

chapter 35 outline. - Chapter 35.1: Plasticity: an...

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Chapter 35.1: Plasticity : an organism’s ability to alter or “mold” itself in response to local environmental conditions. Morphology : Tissue : a group of cells with a common function, structure, or both. I.e. epidurmis Organ : consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions. I.e. roots, stems Morphology of vascular plants reflects their evolutionary history as terrestrial organisms that inhabit and draw resources from two very different environments— below ground and above ground. o Absorb water and nutrients from below ground and CO2 and light from above. Evolutionary solution to this separation of resources was the development of three basic organs: o Roots, Stems, Leaves Organized into a root system and shoot system. o Shoot system : consists of stems and leaves. o Most angiosperms and vascular plants rely on both for survival. o Roots are usually nonphotosynthetic and would starve without the organic nutrients imported from the shoot system and vice versa—need water and minerals roots absorb o In angiosperms, reproductive shoots are flowers: composed of leaves that are highly modified for sexual reproduction. Two major groups of angiosperms: o Monocots and Eudicots Root : organ that anchors a vascular plant (usually in the soil), absorbs minerals and water, and often stores organic nutrients Taproot : consist of one main vertical root (the taproot) that develops from an embryonic root. Taproot gives rise to lateral roots, also called branch roots o Most eudicots and gymnosperms have o In angiosperms usually stores organic nutrients that plant consumes during flowering and fruit production o Generally go deeper into ground In seedless vascular plants and in most monocots, i.e. grasses, embryonic rot dies and does not give rise to many root o Instead many small roots grow from the stem, with each small root forming its own lateral roots o Result is a fibrous root system : Mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one. (no main root) Shallower than taproot system o Roots rising from the stem are said to be adventitious (latin adventicius, extraneous) A term describing any plant part that grows in an unusual location.
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In most plants, absorption of water and minerals occurs near the root tips, where vast numbers of tiny root hairs increase the surface area o Increase absorbtion of water, minerals, and nutrients Root hair: is an extension of a root epidermal cell (protective cell on a plant surface Many plants have modified roots o Some arise from roots, others are adventitious (develop from steams and rarely leaves) o Some provide more support and anchorage while others tore water and nutrients or absorb oxygen or water from the air.
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chapter 35 outline. - Chapter 35.1: Plasticity: an...

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