us_history_study_guide - 1 Study Guide Part II...

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Study Guide Part II Identifications: Charles Grandison Finney and the Second Great Awakening: pg. 76 “An Era of Reform” o A second cycle of evangelical religious ‘awakening’ was a reaction to the rise of science and rationalism. *Chief motivator for social reform Rationalism: a view that reason and experience rather than the nonrational are the fundamental criteria in the solution of problems o Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason (1794) stressed rationalism and humanism Enlightment: put strains on Protestant Christianity o Decline of calvinism Trascendentalism took place: o Thereau and Emerson One result was emergence of new religious sects and denominations Utopian communities Humanitarian reforms sough improvements in many fields: condition of women, existence of slavery, treatment of criminals, problem of alcoholism, etc… Romantic movement in arts stressed American themes, self reliant individualism, and an acknowledgement of the importance of religious influences. Began around 1820: o Represented emotional reaction to rationalism Revivalist camp meetings especially in West stirred participant’s emotions o Fiery New York Preacher Charles G. Finney became promoter of social reform Former lawyer preached that people were moral free agents, fully capable of deciding between right and wrong and doing good in the world. Had great appeal during this period of rapid social, economic, and technological change. Western New York: fervor of religious revivcals so hweated the region that people began to call it the “burned-over district” New Sects: usually from schisms of existing denominations Mormonism: started in upstate New York: appealed to poor people. o Joseph Smith: killed by mob Theodore Parker: a learned NE transcendalist and preacher who favored equality for women and abolition of slavery Utopian Communities: o i.e shakers: Mother Ann Lee o Brook Farm: Massachusetts—succumbed to debt after 5 years—celebrities: hawthorne and emerson 1
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Reform: o Temperance: alcoholism was seen as cause of poverty and other social ills American Temperance Society was formed in Boston in 1826 By 1850’s over a dozen states, beginning with Maine, had adopted prohibition laws. o Crime and Mental Illness: Dorothea Dix: mental institutions, first in Mass. More humane approaches to crime Criminal codes and punishments were eased Imprisonment for debt became less common. o Women’s Rights Seneca Falls (NY) Convention: Lucrettia Mott and Elizabeth C. Stanton in 1948 Issued a women’s declaration of independence Susan B. Anothony lent support Limited gains and improvements o Abolition American Colonization Society Formed in 1817 to found Liberia, ship blacks there William Lloyd Garrison established The Liberator an abolitionist newspaper in 1831. Supported immediate liberation without compensation Rev. Lovejoy American Anti-Slavery Society founded in 1833, later split over
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2008 for the course HIST 200gm taught by Professor Shammas during the Spring '05 term at USC.

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us_history_study_guide - 1 Study Guide Part II...

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