cheat sheet(final) - Chapter 4 attitudes values...

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Chapter 4- attitudes, values, ethics Values- give sense of write and wrong --instrumental: acceptable behaviors used in achieving something by a specific time --terminal: represent permanent goals Ethics- study of moral values/ behave. Machiavellianism - a personality characteristic indicating one’s willingness to do whatever it takes to get one’s way High-Machs : better to be feared than loved, use deceit in relationships, have cynical view of human nature, little concern for conventional notions of right/wrong. More likely to justify manipulative behavior as ethical (b/ c emotionally detached) Low-Machs : value loyalty and relationships, less willing to manipulate others for personal gain, concerned w/ others opinions Cognitive Moral Development- process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions 6 stages (3 levels, 2 stages each): Level I: premoral level : ethical decisions based on rewards, punishments, self interest Stage 1:-obeys rules to avoid punishment Stage 2:-Follows rules only if it is in immediate interest to do so Level II: conventional level : focus is on expectations of others in society Stage 3:-try to live up to expectations of people close to them Stage 4:-broaden perspective to include laws of larger society; fulfill duties to contribute to society Level III: principled level : what is “right” is determined by universal values; individuals see beyond laws, rules, expectations of other people Stage 5:- individ. aware that people have diverse value systems; uphold own values despite what others think; decision based on principles of justice/rights Stage 6:-individ follows self-selected ethical principles Chapter 8- Work Teams and Groups Group: 2+ people with common interests/objectives. Team: small number of people with complimentary skills, common mission and performance goals, and they hold one another mutually accountable. Four aspects of group behavior : Norms of behavior: provide standards of action for the entire group to follow. Group cohesion: (interpersonal glue),maintaining close relations/motivating members; if too much= groupthink. Loss of Individuality: groupthink Social loafing: A social loafer fails to make contributions or follow the norms of behavior. Four stages of group’s development : Mutual acceptance: interpersonal issues (ie)trustworthiness. Task accomplishment: group must decide how to complete task at hand. Motivation stage: some members focus on the task, others on maintenance functions. Control and sanctions: Mature group has gone over authority issues, has clear mission. A mature group has : 1. A purpose and mission- defining goals to increase productivity 2. Group cohesion-“interpersonal glue” 3. Status structure- set of authority and task regs.
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