HP_C4Notes_The Tissue Level of Organization

HP_C4Notes_The Tissue Level of Organization - Human...

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Human Physiology Notes Chapter 4 – The Tissue Level of Organization Tissues of the Body Tissue – group of cells working together to perform a particular function Four primary tissue types: (1) epithelial (2) connective (3) muscle (4) nerve or neural o Histology – study of microscopic anatomy o Epithelial tissue Epithelium – tissue that serves primarily as a covering or lining of body parts, protecting the body. Structure of epithelia Cells closely connected Thin layer of extracellular matrix between cells o Extracellular matrix (EM) – material synthesized and secreted by cells; composition of EM varies depending on tissue type Basement membrane (basal lamina) – acellular layer of EM that lies beneath an epithelium, holding epithelial cells to underlying cell layer Epithelial types Two general types (sheet and secretory) o Sheets of tissue on exposed surface, either external or internal (lumen) Grouped based on number of layers and . . . Simple – one cell thick Stratified - multiple layers Cell shape on exposed surface Cuboidal – “dice-like” or cube-shaped Columnar – “bricks standing on end” or taller than wide Squamous - flattened o Secretory epithelia synthesize and release substances into EM Five functional types of epithelia: (1) exchange, (2) transporting, (3) ciliated, (4) protective, (5) secretory o (1) Exchange – permit rapid exchange of material Simple, squamous epithelium Alveolar sacs of lungs – allows exchange of gases Lining
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