phys exam 1 - Human Physiology Chapter 1 Introduction to...

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Human Physiology Chapter 1 – Introduction to the Human Body Study Guide This is the material you should know for the exam. What is the difference between anatomy, gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and physiology? Anatomy- studies the form and composition of the body’s structure Gross- larger structures of the body, can see with the eye Microscopic- very small structures with magnification Phys- studies chemistry, biochem, and physics of functions. Be able to identify the structural organization of living organisms. Chemical- building blocks of matter, subatomic particles Molecular- chemical building blocks of structures, two or more atoms to combine Cellular- molecules combine to form the fluid and organelles, smallest living organism Tissue- group of cells working together to perform a function Organ level- group of tissues Organ system- group of organs Organismal- organ systems Be able to match organ systems with their primary function and organs. Integumentary- skin, hair, nails. Protection and thermoregulation Musculoskeletal- skel muscles, bones, cart. Movement and support Respiratory- lungs. Gas exchange Digestive- stomach, intestine, etc. breakdown of food and waste elimination Urinary- kidney, bladder, etc. regulation of blood volume Reproductive- gonads, glands, ducts. Continuation of species Circulatory- heart, vessels, etc. movement of blood and lymph Nervous- brain, spine, nerves. Regulation of other body systems Endocrine- hormone secreting glands, pituitary, thyroid, etc. secretion of hormones Immune- bone marrow, lymph organs. Defense against pathogens. What is homeostasis? Maintained of relatively constant internal environment What is a set point? Ideal value for parameter
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What is a negative feedback loop, and what are the components (and function) of the negative feedback loop? Process to maintain homeostasis Sensor- senses/detects deviations from set point Integrating center- receives message and formulates response to send Effector- organ that receives message and causes change in parameter Did we demonstrate a negative feedback loop (if yes, recognize it)? What is a positive feedback loop? Oxytocin Practice Questions These questions are for practice. All possible content may not be represented in this subset of questions. 1. The study of the normal functioning of an organism, including all chemical and physical processes is called physiology 2. The organ system responsible for protection and thermoregulation is integumentary 3. The organ system responsible for secretion of regulatory hormones is endocrine 4. The organ system responsible for gas exchange is respiratory 5. A collection of similar tissues that performs a specific function is organ level 6. Diagram a negative feedback loop for the control of glucose after eating. Identify the stimulus, sensor, integrating center, effector.
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