An Ecological Framework for Cancer Communication

An Ecological Framework for Cancer Communication - An...

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An Ecological Framework for Cancer Communication: Implications for Research Kevin Patrick 1 , MD, MS; Stephen S Intille 2 , PhD; Marion F Zabinski 1 , PhD, MPH 1 Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA 2 House_n, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Corresponding Author: Kevin Patrick, MD, MS Department of Family and Preventive Medicine University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive MC 0811 La Jolla, California 92093-0811 USA Phone: +1 858 457 7296 Fax: +1 858 622 1463 Email: kpatrick [at] ucsd.edu ABSTRACT The field of cancer communication has undergone a major revolution as a result of the Internet. As recently as the early 1990s, face-to-face, print, and the telephone were the dominant methods of communication between health professionals and individuals in support of the prevention and treatment of cancer. Computer-supported interactive media existed, but this usually required sophisticated computer and video platforms that limited availability. The introduction of point-and-click interfaces for the Internet dramatically improved the ability of non-expert computer users to obtain and publish information electronically on the Web. Demand for Web access has driven computer sales for the home setting and improved the availability, capability, and affordability of desktop computers. New advances in information and computing technologies will lead to similarly dramatic changes in the affordability and accessibility of computers. Computers will move from the desktop into the environment and onto the body. Computers are becoming smaller, faster, more sophisticated, more responsive, less expensive, and—essentially—ubiquitous. Computers are evolving into much more than desktop communication devices. New computers include sensing, monitoring, geospatial tracking, just-in-time knowledge presentation, and a host of other information processes. The challenge for cancer communication researchers is to acknowledge the expanded capability of the Web and to move beyond the approaches to health promotion, behavior change, and communication that emerged during an era when language- and image-based interpersonal and mass communication strategies predominated. Ecological theory has been advanced since the early 1900s to explain the highly complex relationships among individuals, society, organizations, the built and natural environments, and personal and population health and well-being. This paper provides background on ecological theory, advances an Ecological Model of Internet-Based Cancer Communication intended to broaden the vision of potential uses of the Internet for cancer communication, and provides some examples of how such a model might inform future research and development in cancer communication.
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