10-13-06 (14) Communication

10-13-06 (14) Communication - Cell Communication September...

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Cell Communication September 13, 2006
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Cell-to-Cell Communication • Intercellular communication • Absolutely essential for multicellular organisms • Also used by single-celled organisms
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Intercellular Communication • Universal mechanisms of cellular regulation • Same small set of cell-signaling mechanisms used repeatedly
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Intercellular Communication • Universal mechanisms of cellular regulation • Signals: – Come from other cells or environment – Physical signals (light and touch) Chemical signals : how cells communicate, can be ion or molecules Signal Steps : – Revieved – Processed – [?]
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Converting a Signal into a Response factor Receptor 1 2 3 factor Type a Type a/ a a • Individual yeast cells S. cerevisiae – Identify their mates by cell signaling – Haploid comes in 2 diff states: alpha & beta
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Signal Transduction Pathways • STP (signal transduction pathways) • Convert signals on a cell’s surface into cellular responses • Are similar in microbes and mammals, suggesting an early origin
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Intercellular Signaling • Cells in a multicellular organism communicate via chemical messengers • Direct communication • Local signaling • Long-distance signaling
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Intercellular Signaling: Direct Contact Plasma membranes Animals and plant cells have cell junctions that directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells
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Intercellular Signaling: Direct Contact Animal cells may also communicate directly via cell surface molecules
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Intercellular Signaling: Over a distance • Local signaling via local regulators , Local regulator diffuses through extracellular fluid Target cell Secretory vesicle Release of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse Target cell is stimulated Local signaling Paracrine Signaling Synaptic Signaling
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Intercellular Signaling: Over a distance • Long-distance signaling • Endocrine signaling • Both plants and animals use hormones Hormone travels in bloodstream to target cells Blood vessel Target cell Endocrine cell
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10-13-06 (14) Communication - Cell Communication September...

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