09-29-06 (11) Cells (part 2)

09-29-06 (11) Cells (part 2) - Cell Structure: Size...

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Cell Structure: Prokaryotic cell vs. Eukaryotic cell • Size difference • Nucleus • Membrane-bound organelles
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Prokaryotic Cells • Do not contain a nucleus • Do not contain membrane-bound organelles
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Prokaryotic Cell
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Prokaryotic Cell Shape • Spheres (cocci) • Rods (bacilli) • Spirals
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Prokaryotic Cell Shape 1 m 2 m 5 m (a) Spherical (cocci) (b) Rod-shaped (bacilli) (c) Spiral
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Prokaryotic Characteristics • Cell surface structures • Motility • Internal and genomic organization • Reproduction • Cell shape
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Cell Surface Structures • Cell wall • Capsule • Appendages
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Cell Wall Peptidoglycan layer Cell wall Plasma membrane Protein Gram- positive bacteria 20 m Outer membrane Peptidoglycan layer Plasma membrane Cell wall Lipopolysaccharide Protein Gram- negative bacteria
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Capsule 200 nm Capsule
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Fimbriae 200 nm Fimbriae
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Motility • About 50% of prokaryotes are capable of directional movement • Taxis • Flagella
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Prokaryotic Flagella Flagellum Filament Hook Cell wall Plasma membrane Basal apparatus 50 nm
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Internal and Genomic Organization • Lack complex compartmentalization • Specialized membranes – Perform metabolic functions • Genome structure – Much less DNA than eukaryotic genomes – Circular chromosome
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Specialized Membranes (a) Aerobic prokaryote (b) Photosynthetic prokaryote 0.2 m 1 m Respiratory membrane Thylakoid membranes
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Prokaryotic Genome 1 m Chromosome
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Reproduction and Adaptation • Reproduce very quickly • Limited by environmental factors • Endospores
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Endospores Endospore 0.3 m
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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09-29-06 (11) Cells (part 2) - Cell Structure: Size...

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