1.3 Observational Studies - STAT 250 Dr Kari Lock Morgan...

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Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5STAT 250Dr. Kari Lock MorganCollecting Data: Observational StudiesSECTION 1.3Association versus CausationConfounding VariablesObservational StudiesRandomized Experiments
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Help and SupportTA/LA Office Hours in 320 Thomas:Sunday 6 – 8pmMonday 12 – 3pmTuesday 6 – 9pmWednesday 12 – 3pmProfessor Office Hours in 323B Thomas:Monday 11am – 12pmWednesday 10 – 11amGuided Study Group:Tuesday 4:30 – 6pm in 312 BouckeThursday 6 – 7:30pm in 011 Life ScienceFor more details: Office Hour and Support Schedule
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Question of the DayDoes exercise improve cognitive ability?
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Association and CausationTwo variables are associated if values of one variable tend to be related to values of the other variableTwo variables are causally associated if changing the value of the explanatory variable influences the value of the response variable
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5Causality Implied?Do the wordings of the following headlines imply a causalassociation?Physical Activity Improves Cognitive FunctionPhysical activity linked to greater mental flexibility in older adultsExercise Makes You SmarterExercise Holds Immediate Benefits for Affect and Cognition in Younger and Older Adults
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5WordingPhrases implying causation:causes / causal associationchangesincreases / decreasesimprovesreducesWords not implying causation:linkedassociated correlatedrelationship
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5020040060080010004050607080TVs per 1000 PeopleLife ExpectancyAngolaAustraliaCambodiaCanadaChinaEgyptFranceHaitiIraqJapanMadagascarMexicoMoroccoPakistanRussiaSouth AfricaSri LankaUgandaUnited KingdomUnited StatesVietnamYemenr = 0.74TVs and Life ExpectancyShould you buy more TVs to live longer?
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5More Examples/spurious-correlationsYou can even discover your own! tylervigen.com/discover
Statistics: Unlocking the Power of DataLock5It’s a Common Mistake!

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