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Revolution and Independence French and Indian War 1754-1763Was a war fighting against the English- “England and France compete in North America” -Tiny part to a bigger war (7 years war in Europe spills over into their colonies) Question-How was 1763- the end of this war- a turning point in British-colonial relations? I.French and English Collide A.This is going to be the bloodiest war of the 1700s and will take more lives than the American Revolution B.War was a result of fighting between the French and English between their colonies and who will get trading rights etc. 1.In 1740s both English and French are trading furs with NAs which causes fighting in the Ohio region 2.In 1750s english decides to settle the land that the NAs are living on (Ohio region) II.Why are they going to fight? A.Land and trading rights (wealth) B.English are proud to be English and fighting for England since English and French are rivals in Europe III.Ohio Valley (region) A.Each side tried to keep the other out of the Ohio Valley 1.it was mostly owned by the French but the English want more land in this area IV.War began when General George Washington and a few men demanded that the French leave the Ohio Valley and the French say no V.Prelude to War 1754 A.Washington hoped to capture Ft. Duquesne from the French (they built this fort to defend themselves and their territory from the English) but soon realized that they weren’t strong enough and retreated when they were chased out 1.Takeaway- British and French are fighting over land and trading rights in the Ohio Valley 2.After the English built Fort Necessity then the French take it away B.War seems inevitable 1.Albany Congress a)Benjamin Franklin and some other leaders call for a conference in Albany and colonists from most of the colonies to discuss a union to defend themselves against the french and NAs (1)First time that colonies form a formal union and the colonies are all uniting for the first time for the purpose of defending themselves b)Ben Franklin made a document that said that although we are ruled by the English we should have our own governing structure here so we can unite and fight (1)“Join or Die” is the first political cartoon of the colonies
(a)The letters are the colonies and the snake is not united to show that the only way they will survive is if they unite- Need to join the parts of the snake in order to defend themselves c)The people would be elected and it would be headed by a person chosen by the king to be the general president (1)First baby step to Union- Albany plan is very similar to the Constitution d)Colonial legislatures (from the 13 colonies) rejected the plan (1)Colonies weren’t ready to unite C.War is formally declared 1756 1.the war was fought for 3 years 2.French defeated the British at Ticonderoga D.Colonists Fortunes Reverse 1.William Pitt becomes Prime Minister of England and says they he will not let the colonists lose the war 2.Three Pronged Plan a)1. Kick the French out of North America b)2. Stimulate the economy in the colonies