CEE597 Handout 25 Health - CEE 597 Rlsk Analysis and...

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CEE 597 - Rlsk Analysis and Management Toxic Emissions and Chronic Risks from Environmental Contaminants March 26 and 28,2007 Multimedia Readin@ (in packet) Stevens and Swackhamer, "Environ. Pollution: A multimedia approach. . ." <good discussion; typos in important equations; will discuss more after break; read> McKone,". . .Exposure . . Multiple Media & Multiple Pathways. . ." <good discussion; read> ATSDR Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual <background: covers everything> Pollutant Transport Equations (in packet) Davis and Cornwell, "Air Pollution," in Intto to Enuir. Engineering. <read> Example of a realistic multimedia modelling effort Marshall, et al., "Risk Assessment at a Former Pesticide Production Facility" <good discusion and illustration of analysis; example covered in class.> Outline Todays lecture is an introduction to topic. Accidents -> Transport Human effects Transport models Multimedia and multiple pollutants Possible complexity of a lake ecosystem model Air-Soil-Water-Groundwater Environmental pathways Matrix of Exposure pathways (inhalation, ingestions, dermal contact) with environmental media (air, soil, water) Conclusions: value of models Importance of atmospheric pollutants Objectives of Entire Unit 1) Want student to understand environ. pathways. toxics - > human body. 2) Want student to appreciate how the transport rates through those pathways are modelled. This includes: a) Structure of models employed b) Sources of parameters and their character c) Major strengths and weakness of models
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Environmental Pollution Consider chronic and acute risks from industrial activities or accidents, and emissions to land, water and air including chemical releases, incineration of wastes, major accidents. Components of problem or accident Industrial activity or accident Release process of agent(s) Transportation and transformation processes: New agents or Interactions Air, Water Land, Plants, Animals Exposure to humans Human Effects Release Models Accident or process specific. How much material is there when tank ruptures ? Amount of material in water or air discharged ? Normal operations (long-run exposure from chronic risks) Unusual operations (short-term exposure from acute risks) Transport Models These are the models engineers enjoy. Generally based upon conservation of mass. Processes causing movement Processes causing decomposition and transformation, Consider c(x,y,t) for homogenous Zdimensional air or water media with velocity u in x-direction Time Advection Molecular First-order Source rateof x-direction Diffusion or Decay or change Dispersion Sink Solution For g = 0, and for an instantaneous release of Q at t = x = y = 0, yields a Gaussian plume model for c(x,y,t): Many such puffs (gdl) can be added iogether to represent continuous or intermittent emissions. Puffs tracked to describe changes in wind drection or ocean currents.
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course CEE 5970 taught by Professor Stedinger during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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CEE597 Handout 25 Health - CEE 597 Rlsk Analysis and...

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