quinine substitutes confederate army

quinine substitutes confederate army - MILITARY MEDICINE,...

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MILITARY MEDICINE, 172, 6:650. 2007 Quinine Substitutes in the Confederate Army Guarantor; Guy R. Hasegawa, PharmD Contributor: Guy R. Hasegawa, PharmD During the Civil War, the unreliable supply and high cost of quinine forced the Confederate Army to use alternative treat- ments for malaria. Many quinine substitutes were mentioned in the literature of the time, but relatively few were advocated by Confederate officials and even fewer are described in sur- viving records. Medical supply officers often issued substitute remedies when quinine was requisitioned. Most alternative treatments were made from indigenous plants such as dog- wood, willow (a constituent of which gave rise to aspirin), and tulip tree. High hopes were held for Georgia bark, which was thought to be closely related to cinchona, from which quinine was derived. Documentation of the effectiveness of quinine substitutes is scanty but is most plentiful for the external application of turpentine. The quinine substitutes were gener- ally considered useful but not as effective as quinine. The Confederate Surgeon General's Office was active in seeking out and supplying troops with quinine substitutes. Introduction uinine, an alkaloid derived from the South American cin- chona tree, was well recognized by the middle 1800s as the Irug of choice for treating malaria,' The outbreak of the Civil War and the imposition of the Union naval blockade made it urgent for the South to find quinine substitutes. Malaria (often called intermittent or periodic fever) reduced Confederate military manpower considerably and. even if cinchona bark (Peruvian bark) or quinine could be obtainedfrom blockade runners or other sources, the price was constantly rising. Dozens of antimalarial treatments, most of them derived from indigenous plants, were mentioned in the literature ofthe time. but the number of remedies advocated by Confederate medical officials was much smaller, and documentation of wartime use exists for only a handful. This article summarizes the use of quinine substitutes in the Confederate Army and illustrates how its medical decision-makers coped with a vexing supply problem. Potential and Actual Quinine Substitutes Approximately two dozen possible quinine substitutes were described in an 1861 article by physician-seientist and future Confederate surgeon Joseph Jones^ (Fig. 1). However, it was not until March 1862 that, in recognition of the high cost of im- ported drugs, the Surgeon General's Office (SGO). Confederate Army, issued a pamphlet on indigenous medicinal plants thought to be useful.^ The pamphlet listed several plants that would eventually be given to soldiers for malaria but identified only Saiix spp. (willow) as useful in treating periodic fever. Ac- companying the pamphlet were instructions for surgeons to Publications and Drug Inforaiation Systems OfBce. American Society of Health- System Phannacists, Bethesda, MD 20814. This manuscript was received for review in October 2006 and was accepted for
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course AM ST 212 taught by Professor Washington, m during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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quinine substitutes confederate army - MILITARY MEDICINE,...

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