36_Marine_Pollution_Policy_2 - Marine Pollution and Ocean...

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Marine Pollution and Ocean Policy Part 2
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Marine Pollution II
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Point Source and Nonpoint Source Pollution Point Source Pollution: A singularly identifiable source of pollution . 1. such as a direct industrial discharge 2. sewage outfall Nonpoint Source Pollution: A diffuse source of pollution such as caused by rainfall moving over and through the ground that carries natural and human-made pollutants that are finally deposited into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters, and even underground sources of drinking water. These pollutants include 1. Oil, grease, and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy production 2. Excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides from agricultural lands and residential areas 3. Sediment from improperly managed construction sites, crop and forest lands, and eroding stream banks 4. Bacteria and nutrients from livestock, pet wastes, and faulty septicsystems 5. Salt from irrigation practices and acid drainage from abandoned mines 6. Atmospheric deposition (acid rain)
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Nonpoint Source Pollution “It's the largest cause of water pollution in the nation, and one we've barely begun to address. But there's lots you can do to help…” http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/
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While point source oil pollution from oil tankers spills produces catastrophic damage to local waters , the largest source of oil discharge to the ocean overall comes from nonpoint sources such as household drains and runoff from urban roadways. The graph above shows how many millions of gallons of oil each source puts into the oceans worldwide each year http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/peril_pollution1.html
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Minamata Bay, Japan: An Extreme Example of Heavy Metal Pollution Industrial mercury was discharged directly (point source) into the bay and it entered the fish populations that were consumed by the local residence and led to terrible birth defects
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Industrial Heavy Metal Pollution in Smoke Stack Exhaust
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Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals 1. From the lecture on trophic transfer efficiency we learned that is take 10 3 units of phytoplankton carbon to make 1 unit of fish carbon for a fish that is 3 trophic steps away from phytoplankton. 2. In the open open ocean, with 5 trophic steps to fish like tuna, it takes 10 5 units of phytoplankton to make 1 unit of tuna 3. Unlike carbon, heavy metals like mercury are not easily lost in the transfer from one trophic level to the next. 4. 1 unit of fish like tuna (that are 5 trophic steps from phytoplankton) has nearly all the mercury that was initially contained in 10 5 units of phytoplankton or equivalently the tuna has 10 5 higher concentration of mercury than phytoplankton! 5. Adding mercury to the ocean at even very low concentrations has a gigantic effect on the final concentration of mercury in fish because of this 10 5 magnification.
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Sewage Outfall ( Point Source Pollution )
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Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD): The BOD is an important measure of water quality. It is a measure of the amount of oxygen needed by bacteria and other microorganisms to
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course EAS 1540 taught by Professor Monger during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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36_Marine_Pollution_Policy_2 - Marine Pollution and Ocean...

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