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33_Fishing_Impacts

33_Fishing_Impacts - Fishing Impacts Outline 1 Depletion of...

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1 Fishing Impacts Outline… 1. Depletion of Global Fish Populations 2. Incidental Damage Caused by Fishing a) By-Catch b) Ecosystem Degradation 3. Aquarium Fishery a) Cyanide fishing b) Dynamite fishing 4. Fish Farming 5. Eco-Friendly Seafood Choices 1. Today, fisheries are estimated to provide 16% of the world population's protein , and that figure is considerably elevated in some developing nations and in regions that depend heavily on the sea. 2. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, total world capture fisheries production in 2000 was 85 million tons . 3. A very small number of species support the majority of the world's fisheries. Some of these species are herring, sardine, anchovy, cod, tuna, flounder , salmon, crab, squid, shrimp, lobster, oyster and scallops. 4. Herring and sardines together providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other species as well are fished in smaller numbers, both locally and globally. 5. The top producing countries are, in order, the China, Peru, Japan, the United States , Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland . Those countries accounted for more than half of the world's production; China alone accounted for a third of the world's production. Some Basic Facts….
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2 “It is becoming increasingly apparent that the vast blue expanse of ocean—the last frontier—is not as inexhaustible as it once seemed. We can now fish anywhere, at any depth, for any species.” Decline of Community Biomass of Top Predators Open-Ocean Continental Shelf Relative abundance of top predators ( e.g., Tuna & Swordfish ) caught per 100 hooks set from 1960 to 2000 for open-ocean regions and continental shelves. Top predator abundances today are <10% of original stocks present in the 1960s. Estimated global fish landings 1950 ! 1999 Pauly Nature 2002 1) Overall biomass caught has leveled off, 2) pelagic fish are in decline, 3) anchovy increased 4) ground fish increased, 5) invertebrates increased. Note: IUU = illegal, unregulated and unreported fish catches
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3 Fishing Down the Trophic Food Chain Global Trends of Mean Trophic Level of Fisheries Landings From 1950 to 1994 Mean Trophic Level As valuable higher trophic level fish are depleted, fishing industry moves to progressively lower trophic level populations. The downward trend toward a lower average trophic level being harvested by the global fishery is a strong indication of over-fishing 1. Total global fish catch has leveled off at about 85 million metric tons per year . 2. 75 percent of all ocean fisheries (e.g, the Bluefin Tuna and Atlantic Cod fisheries) are either at their limits or are overfished 3. As valuable higher trophic level fish are depleted, fishing industry moves to progressively lower trophic level populations .
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