28_ClimateOptions.10.27.07 - Carbon Sequestration Carbon...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration refers to the long-term storage of carbon underground, in the terrestrial biosphere, or in the oceans to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon Sequestration Department of Energy is focusing its carbon sequestration research efforts on: Sequestering carbon in underground geologic repositories. Increasing carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere by enhancing growth of vegetation (especially trees) and subsequent storage in living biomass and soils. Increasing carbon sequestration in the ocean by enhancing by fertilization of phytoplankton with nutrients and injection of CO2 into deep ocean. Global Carbon Cycle: Fluxes and Reservoirs of Carbon Atmosphere Ocean C02 Fluxes At Equilibrium: partial pressure dissolved gas to dissolved ions Atmospheric CO2(g) Ocean CO2(g) Carbonic Acid + Bicarbonate + Carbonate "Solubility Pump" Pump" 1 Biological Pump Carbon Fixation: Inorganic C Matter Organic JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) Objectives To determine on a global scale the processes controlling the carbon fluxes between the atmosphere, ocean, and seafloor. To develop a capability to predict the global response of ocean biogeochemistry to man-made disturbances in climate. CO2 (g) is "drawn down" down" from the atmosphere to the ocean. Inorganic C fixed to organic matter, which sinks into the deep sea Global Sinks for Anthropogenic CO2 Currently, ocean and terrestrial biosphere take up about 2 Gt each of approx. 7.5 GT released annually. Oceanic sink accounts for all of the CO2 that has not accumulated in atmosphere since beginning of industrial period. Although terrestrial biosphere is a sink for CO2 at present, it has historically been a source. Sabine et al. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305: 367. Feeley et al. 2004. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305: 362. Global Climate Engineering 2 Priming Biological Pump by Adding Fe to Southern Ocean Most interest focused on the Southern Ocean, where up to 40% of the fixed organic C sinks into the deep sea. However, primary production is limited by the availability of iron. Iron Ex Experiments in Equatorial Pacific Iron Ex II Results Iron Additions in the Southern Ocean SOIREE (Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment) was conducted during February 1999. SOIREE confirmed iron limitation; however, there was no evidence of enhanced carbon export to the deep sea. 3 Iron Additions in the Southern Ocean SOFEX (Southern Ocean Iron Experiment) was conducted during February 2002. SOFEX confirmed iron limitation, enhanced export of carbon to the deep sea, and importance of co-limitation by Si. Si. Societal Responses to Climate Change Coale, et al. 2004. Southern Ocean Coale, iron enrichment experiment: carbon cycling in high- and low-Si Water. Science 304: 408. Do they really put their heads in the sand? Actually, that's a myth: ostriches do not bury their heads in the sand! When an ostrich senses danger and cannot run that' away, it flops to the ground and remains still, with its head and neck flat on the ground in front of it. Because the head and neck are lightly colored, they blend in with the color of the soil. From a distance, it just looks like the ostrich has buried its head in the sand, because only the body is visible. National Energy Policy- Goals Provide dependable, affordable energy for the future Accelerate protection and improvement of the environment (implies protecting human health) Increase energy security (decrease reliance on foreign oil, e.g. OPEC) Price energy to reflect true cost To Accomplish These Energy Goals, The Bush Administration Has Recommended ... Drilling for more oil, including the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) Budgets that have consistently reduced funding for renewable energy research Increasing our reliance on coal-burning power plants Cheney, et al. National Energy Policy 2001 4 More Drilling for Energy Security? Another Alternative: Energy Efficiency Past 25 yrs "efficiency revolution" has saved > 4 x energy of entire U.S. annual domestic energy production (> 10 x Persian Gulf imports) America consumes 25% world's oil (1/4 from world' OPEC), but possesses < 4% world reserves U.S. oil imports ~ 60% (47% 10 yrs ago) Import costs? Even prior to War in Iraq: $56 B oil + $25 B military defense of Middle East exporters A Step Backwards We Can Do Better (And Did! ) From 1979-85, new light vehicles gained 0.4 mpg every 5 months. CAFE Standards: 27.5mpg for cars, 21.6 mpg for light trucks In 2001, the average U.S. car efficiency rating was 24 mpg => 20 yr record low Energy plan proposes to drill ANWR (to fuel our inefficient fleet). Just boosting efficiency by 0.4 mpg would equal total expected ANWR output Trend ended with rollback of efficiency standards (wasting equivalent to ANWR total output and 2 x imports from Persian Gulf). If the efficiency trend had continued, we could have halted all Persian Gulf oil imports. 5 Mobility with Less Oil US fleet of Priuses (48 mpg) or Honda Insights (67 mpg) saves gas equal to 26 x or 33 x Arctic Refuge's worth of Refuge' crude oil. VW "city" car in Europe gets 78 mpg. city" Chairs of 4 major oil companies: "start of oil end-game, dawning of H2 Age." Age." Plug-In Electric Hybrids will revolutionize the transportation sector. U.S. Auto & Light Truck CO2 Emissions National Research Council (NRC) Report: NRC "Moderate Action" Action" NRC "Strong Action" Action" adds hydrogen-powered hydrogenvehicles in 2030 (30% of 2050 fleet) Hydrogen produced from non- CO2 sources nononly. 6 ...
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