37_Final_Review - Review for the Final Final exam schedule:...

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1 Review for the Final Final exam schedule : Date: Monday, December 10 th Time: 9:00AM – 11:30AM Location: Olin 155 “The Southern Oscillation” Coherent Oscillation of the Walker Circulation Cell El Niño’s Effect on Biological Productivity off of Peru and Ecuador Normal Conditions El Niño Conditions
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2 Pacifc Hurricanes Increase During an El Nino, but Atlantic Hurricanes Decrease Flooding in the Western United States El Nino Conditions: La Nina Conditions
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3 Jet streams have wave-like properties and just like a disturbance in water causes a wave to propagate outward, so too does a regional disturbance in the jet stream position propagate in wave-like fashion around the globe. Other Natural Climate Variations 1. El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 2. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) 3. Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO) 4. Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Global ocean primary production is an important component of the global carbon cycle. It is, therefore, an essential element to our understanding and prediction of global climate and climate change Magnitude of CO 2 flux between Land and Ocean Reservoirs CO 2 = Carbon Dioxide CH 4 = Methane
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4 Keeling Curve Atmospheric CO 2 Concentration on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Since the 1957 Note the change from about 315 parts per million (ppm) to 380 ppm CO 2 (PPM) Global Temperature Anomalies Since the Industrial Era Observed Global Warming is Not Evenly Distributed Over the Earth
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5 Heat Budget: The Long and the Short of It! Short Wavelength Radiation Long Wavelength Radiation 1. Short wavelength radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere and is absorbed by the earth’s surface where it is then re-radiated back as long wavelength radiation. 2. greenhouse gases , like water vapor and CO 2 , al ow shortwave length radiation to pass through the atmosphere, but absorbs/traps the long wavelength radiation that is trying to escape. 3. The long wavelength energy that is absorbed by the atmosphere causes the atmosphere to heat. Adding more greenhouse gasses leads to more long wavelength energy absorption, making this arrow bigger Observed Consequences of Global Warming Surface Melt on Greenland Melt water descending into a Moulin - a vertical shaft carrying water to ice sheet base Note: Greenland contains about 9 percent of all ice on Earth— enough water to raise sea level by 5 meters. Source: Roger Braithwaite, University of Manchester (UK)
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6 Sea Level Rise Since the Industrial Era Fabled Northwest Passage Opened for the First Time in the Summer of 2007 Summer 2007 Summer Arctic Ice Cover Time Series Biological & Solubility Carbon Pumps Move Carbon Dioxide From the Atmosphere to the Deep Ocean Where it is Stored for About 2,000 Years or to Marine Sediments Where it is Stored for Geologic Time Periods
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7 Global Sinks for Anthropogenic CO 2 Currently, the ocean and the terrestrial biospheres each take up about 2 Gt of the approximately 7.5 GT released annually - the rest stays in the atmosphere. Uptake of Anthropogenic CO
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37_Final_Review - Review for the Final Final exam schedule:...

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