12_physical_ocean_3 - Ocean Dynamics III Outline 1....

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1 Ocean Dynamics III Outline 1. Overview of Observed Physical Patterns Winds, Ocean Temperature, Salinity, Surface + Deep Currents 2. Atmospheric Circulation Coriolis Force, Atmospheric Convection, Hadley Circulation, Surface Wind Patterns 3. Density Structure of the Ocean Salinity Variations, Ocean Heating and Cooling, Seawater Density, Buoyancy and Density Strati±cation 4. Wind-Driven Surface Circulation Acting Forces, Ekman Transport in the Surface Ocean, Geostrophic Currents in the Subsurface Ocean, Subtropical Gyre Circulation, Equatorial and Coastal Upwelling 5. Thermohaline Circulation of the Deep Ocean Water Mass Identi±cation by T-S Signature, Rate of Movement with 14 C, Location of Deepwater Formation, Global Conveyor Belt Circulation and Global Heat Transport Ekman Transport of Water in the Surface Layer of the Ocean
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2 Ekman Transport Due to Wind Force, Friction Force and Coriolis Force 1. Ekman Spiral : the spiraling of thin ocean currents within the Ekman Layer top-most current moves at 45-degrees to the wind forcing. The bottom-most current moves directly opposite the wind direction. 2. Ekman Transport is the rate of total water transported in the Ekman Layer Derived by summing all the individual thin currents over the entire Ekman Layer Direction is exactly at 90 degrees of the wind direction 3. Oceanographers often treat the Ekman Layer as a slab of water that moves in unison at 90 degrees to the right (northern hemisphere) or left (southern hemisphere) of the wind direct Geostrophic Motion in the Subsurface Layer of the Ocean Response of Fluid in the Deep Ocean Due to Pressure Gradient Force and Coriolis Force 3. The fluid continues to be pushed by Coriolis until the Coriolis force is directed equal and opposite of the pressure gradient force - at which point the two forces cancel and the fluid move at steady speed (no acceleration) - remember too that there is not friction to bring this steady motion to a halt! 4.
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12_physical_ocean_3 - Ocean Dynamics III Outline 1....

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