05_03_11 - complete set. The quantum state of photons in a...

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[email protected] 86 Conversion of polarization states In a calcite crystal the index of refraction is different for two orthogonal axes. This leads to a phase difference of S /2 after a O /4 plate: ) sin( ) cos( t e t e E y x R out ϖ + = ) sin( ) cos( t e t e E y x L out & - = ) cos( ) cos( t e t e E y x in & - = Linear polarized photon states can be changed into circular polarized states and vice versa. ) cos( ) cos( t e t e E y x in + = 03/11/2005 x: slow axis y: fast axis
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[email protected] 87 Orthogonality and completeness A state |A> is called orthogonal to a state |B> when the projection probability from |A> to |B> is zero. Orthogonality is reflexive : if |A> is orthogonal to |B> then |B> is orthogonal to |A>. An arbitrary light beam can be separated into two orthogonal linear polarized beams without loss of Intensity. The two linear polarization state are therefore called a complete set. Similarly two counter rotating circular polarization states are a
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Unformatted text preview: complete set. The quantum state of photons in a beam of many photons can be determined by orienting an analyzer to have transmission 0. The quantum state of a single photon can however not be determined without running the risk of altering the quantum state. Measurements influence the measured quantum state. 03/11/2005 [email protected] 88 Statistical and classical properties of light Particle wave duality: Wave properties are an expression of the probabilistic or statistical behavior of large numbers of identically prepared quantum particles. This is generally true not only for polarization: In te rf er en ce fr in ge s 03/11/2005 ● One cannot associate a field vector to an individual photon. ● Wave properties of light can only be found when very large numbers of photons are investigated....
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course PHYS 316 taught by Professor Hoffstaetter during the Spring '05 term at Cornell.

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05_03_11 - complete set. The quantum state of photons in a...

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