presentation_18 - Selection on genes and proteins What...

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Selection on genes and proteins • What evolutionary forces shape variation and divergence in DNA sequences? • Opportunity to obtain data on variation within populations and divergence between species. Can now compare across entire genomes (e.g., human and chimp). • Here we will focus on sequence divergence for protein coding genes. • What are mutation rates and substitution rates (and what is the relationship between them)? • What role for selection and drift? Selection on genes and proteins Lecture 18
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Selection on genes and proteins • What evolutionary forces shape variation and divergence in DNA sequences? • Opportunity to obtain data on variation within populations and divergence between species. Can now compare across entire genomes (e.g., human and chimp). • Here we will focus on sequence divergence for protein coding genes. • What are mutation rates and substitution rates? • What role for drift vs. selection? Gene Structure Exons (coding regions) Introns, 5± and 3± UTRs
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Transitions and transversions AG TC transitions transversions A,G T,C purines pyrimidines Transversion mutations less common than transitions The genetic code sites can be classifed as non-degenerate, two-Fold degenerate and Four-Fold degenerate U U U(F) U C U(S) U A U(Y) U G U(C) UUC(F) UCC(S) UAC(Y) UGC(C) UUA(L) UCA(S) UAA(*) UGA(W) UUG(L) UCG(S) UAG(*) UGG(W) CUU(L) CC U (P) CA U (H) CGU(R) CUC(L) CC C CA C CGC(R) CUA(L) CC A CAA(Q) CGA(R) CUG(L) CC G CAG(Q) CGG(R) AUU(I) ACU(T) AAU(N)
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presentation_18 - Selection on genes and proteins What...

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