week_12_plasticity_3

week_12_plasticity_3 - HD 220 2006 1 Temple 2006 1 How Do...

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Unformatted text preview: HD 220 2006 1 Temple, 2006 1 How Do We Learn? Plasticity and the Brain Week 12, lecture 2 Temple, 2006 2 Plasticity and the Brain • Plasticity and changes to the synapse – Increase number of synapses • Experience • Injuries • Hormones • Neurotrophic factors – Increase strength of synapses • LTP • Plasticity and the effects of experience • Critical periods of plasticity • Plasticity and the response to training • Plasticity and the response to injury Temple, 2006 3 Synaptic Changes • Learning and memory – Can be increases in number of synapses • Modify existing circuits • Create novel circuits – Add new neurons – Can be increases in strength of synapses • As discussed earlier – LTP, etc – Can be both HD 220 2006 2 Temple, 2006 4 Dendritic Changes • Dendrites – in general – Are very dynamic – Change shape and orientation • Not static Temple, 2006 5 Changes in Dendritic Morphology Temple, 2006 6 Experience and Brain development HD 220 2006 3 Temple, 2006 7 Enriched Experience • Enriched experience – Changes many aspects of brain structure and morphology of synapses Temple, 2006 8 Synaptic Changes • Changes in number of synapses – Can increase OR decrease – Decreases can be positive • Sculpting process – Gets rid of unnecessary synapses – Decreases can be negative • Abnormal development or disease Temple, 2006 9 Injury and Abnormal Development HD 220 2006 4 Temple, 2006 10 Hormones & Plasticity • Hormones – Powerful abilities to change neurons and pattern nervous system • Often change genes that are expressed in cells to make dramatic changes in cell • Can affect number of synapses and dendrite morphology – Examples: • Gonadal hormones – Produced by gonads – Estrogen – Testosterone • Glucocorticoids – Stress hormones – Cortisol Temple, 2006 11 Neurotrophic Factors • Neurotrophic factors – Compounds that promote the growth and survival of neurons • Produced in brain – By neurons and glia...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course HD 220 taught by Professor Anon during the Fall '06 term at Cornell.

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week_12_plasticity_3 - HD 220 2006 1 Temple 2006 1 How Do...

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