Answers_to_practice

Answers_to_practice - FILL-IN-THE-BLANK Fill in the...

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FILL-IN-THE-BLANK . Fill in the words/phrases in the following sentences. 1. A derived character state that is unique to a single taxon is called an autapomorphy . 2. Knuckle walking is a homoplasy in chimpanzees and gorillas. 3. A monophyletic group includes all descendent of a common ancestor and is called a clade . 4. Arrange in order of appearance in the fossil record the following taxa, (1) Homo erectus ; (2) Gibbon; (3) Chimp; (4) Australopithecus ; (5) Squirrel Monkey: 5, 2, 3, 4, 1 . 5. Charles Lyell, an English geologist, was a strong proponent of the uniformitarian view of geological change. SHORT ESSAYS. 1. In a few sentences explain how “descent through modification” leads to a hierarchical organization of taxa. When an ancestral taxon ‘splits” into two or more descendant taxa that share a modified character state (trait 1 goes from state 0 to 1), and these taxa split further into more descendents possessing new character states state 1 goes to 2 and 3), a hierarchy of character states and groups (taxa with state 3 are in one group; taxa with state 2 are in one group; both are in a bigger group that shared an ancestor whose state was 1, etc.).
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