lecture11 - BioEE 278 Evolutionary Biology ORIGIN OF...

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BioEE 278 Fall 2007 Evolutionary Biology Lecture 11 ORIGIN OF VARIATION A. Variation is central to the evolutionary process. 1. Phenotype and genotype. a. phenotype is constellation of observable traits b. genotype is the genetic endowment of a particular individual (either at a single locus or for entire genetic complement) c. phenotype is a function of genotype AND environment - but evolutionary process depends on heritable variation 2. Somatic and germ cell lineages. a. heritability is solely the province of germ cell lineages (August Weismann) b. sequestering of the germ line B. Mutation. 1. Mutation (alteration in the genetic material) is the ultimate source of all variation. 2. Terminology a. gene: functional unit of heredity - a region of the genome that encodes a product? b. locus: chromosome region occupied by a gene (but often used to mean the gene) c. allele: one of the forms of the same gene d. haplotype: a particular DNA sequence for a gene or chromosome region 3. Mutation is random, not directed.
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