week_8_language_3

week_8_language_3 - HD 220 Fall 2006 1 Temple 2006 1 How Do...

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Unformatted text preview: HD 220 Fall 2006 1 Temple, 2006 1 How Do We Communicate? – 2 Language in the Brain Week 8, Lecture 2 Temple, 2006 2 How Do We Communicate? • Review auditory system • Language – Language is special • Specialized sound • Special human ability – Language localization in the brain • Lesion evidence • Brain stimulation evidence • Brain imaging evidence – Animal communication Temple, 2006 3 Anatomy of Hearing HD 220 Fall 2006 2 Temple, 2006 4 Auditory Pathways • Main auditory pathway – Cochlear nerve (CN 8) from ear – Cochlear nucleus – Inferior colliculus – Auditory thalamus • MGN • Medial geniculate nucleus – Auditory cortex Left Auditory cortex Right Auditory cortex Cochlea Medial geniculate nucleus Inferior colliculus Superior Olivary nucleus Ipsilateral Cochlear nucleus Auditory nerve fiber Temple, 2006 5 Auditory Cortex Temple, 2006 6 Parallel Processing in Auditory System • Parallel processing – Just like vision – Information is segregated and processed in parallel • Frequency (pitch) – Frequency maps throughout system » Tonotopic organization • Loudness • Location info • And other attributes of the sound signal are processed separately in parallel pathways – Some researchers hypothesizing “what / where” pathways in auditory system • Brain has available all these attributes of the sound signal to interpret and integrate • Theme in nervous system – Different attributes are processed in parallel and integrated at higher levels • Somatosensory • Motor HD 220 Fall 2006 3 Temple, 2006 7 How Do We Communicate? • Review auditory system • Language – Language is special • Specialized sound • Special human ability – Language localization in the brain • Lesion evidence • Brain stimulation evidence • Brain imaging evidence – Animal communication Temple, 2006 8 Detecting Sound Patterns • Auditory cortex has neurons and groups of neurons that “build” more complex responsivity – Respond to specific patterns of sound • Specific language sounds • Species specific vocalization Temple, 2006 9 Special Sound Patterns • Language is composed of special sounds that have specific patterns – Phonemes • The smallest meaningful unit in a language – da ga • Different languages have different set of phonemes – Japanese doesn’t differentiate between /r/ and /l/ – English doesn’t differentiate between trilled R and regular...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course HD 220 taught by Professor Anon during the Fall '06 term at Cornell.

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week_8_language_3 - HD 220 Fall 2006 1 Temple 2006 1 How Do...

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