week_4_neurons_are_chemical_2_3_slides

week_4_neurons_are_chemical_2_3_slides - Neurons are...

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Temple, 2006 1 Neurons are Chemical 2: NTs Week 4, lecture 2 Temple, 2006 2 Plan For Today • Neurotransmitters • Clinical Disorders – Parkinson’s – Schizophrenia • Synapses and learning & memory • Drug effects on the synapse Temple, 2006 3 Review: Stages of Synaptic Transmission
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Temple, 2006 4 Review: Neurotransmitters H Histamine GABA Gamma -aminobutyric acid Glu Glutamate Amino Acids 5-HT Serotonin EP Epinephrine NE Norepinephrine DA Dopamine Amines Ach Acetylcholine Abbrev. Transmitter Pancreatic polypeptides Somatostatins Gastrin, cholecystokinin Gastrins Insulin, insulin growth factors Insulins Gastric inhibitory peptide, growth-hormone -releasing peptide Secretins Vasopressin, oxytocin Neurohypophyseals Enkephaline Opoids Example Family Carbon Monoxide Nitric Oxide Transmitter Gasses Small Molecule Peptides Temple, 2006 5 NT of Movement Motor movement requires activation of neurons – From spinal cord to muscle NT used is in these synapses is Acetylcholine (Ach) – Called “cholinergic” neurons and synapses Receptor on all skeletal muscle is – Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor • Ionotropic – Channel that al ows both Na + and K + to flow through Temple, 2006 6 Neuromuscular Junction From: Atlas of Ultrastructural Neurocytology ht p:/ synapses.bu.edu/atlas/
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Temple, 2006 7 NTs of Autonomic NS Temple, 2006 8 • Stimulate vagus nerve – CN 10 – Heart slows • Acetylcholine also • NT can have different effects depending on RECEPTOR Loewi’s Experiment Temple, 2006 9 NTs of the CNS • CNS – Uses many NTs – 2 most common used throughout CNS • GABA (gamma- aminobutyric acid) – Inhibitory NT • Glutamate – Excitatory NT
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Temple, 2006 10 Acetylcholine Temple, 2006 11 Serotonin Temple, 2006 12 Norepinephrine
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Temple, 2006 13 Dopamine Temple, 2006 14 Plan For Today • Neurotransmitters • Clinical Disorders – Parkinson’s – Schizophrenia • Synapses and learning & memory • Drug effects on the synapse Temple, 2006 15 Clinical Disorders: Parkinson’s • Parkinson’s disease – Movement becomes increasingly slow • Eventually become almost frozen • Shaking – tremor is characteristic of disease – Resting tremor is characteristic of Parkinson’s Disease – Affects movement first • Eventually can affect cognitive function but only much later in progression of disease – Michael J Fox, Mohammed Ali, Janet Reno
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Temple, 2006 16 Clinical Disorders: Parkinson’s • Selective death of dopaminergic neurons – Located in substantia nigra of basal ganglia – Without these particular dopamine neurons • Unable to initiate movement Dopamine neurons stain dark In Parkinson’s there is very little staining Parkinson’s Temple, 2006 17 Clinical Disorders: Schizophrenia • Schizophrenia – Symptoms
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week_4_neurons_are_chemical_2_3_slides - Neurons are...

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