presentation_23 - Lecture 23 Evolution and development...

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1 Lecture 23 Evolution and development • How do new structures and functions arise? • Genotype Phenotype • Development: The process of cellular /organ/ structural differentiation from egg to adult. Development Origin of Novelty
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2 • Development has a temporal component. Development of a phenotype • Development has a spatial component. Development of a phenotype Position of limb buds Position of eyes
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3 • Changes in development can have a profound effect on phenotype (morphology). • Therefore, focus on the genes involved in determining fundamental patterns of differentiation during development. • Focus on morphological phenotype. Development of a phenotype Developmental changes in morphology • A structure (leg bone) may change because the genes producing the structure change. OR • because the expression of the genes change in time or space; i.e. the regulation of the genes change. • Will be concerned with changes in gene regulation rather than changes in structural genes.
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4 Transcription factors bind to speciFc control DNA sequences ( cis - regulatory sequences) upstream of a gene, resulting in up- or down- regulation of transcription. Ligand: protein/hormone that binds to receptor & transmits a signal to the cell Components of gene regulation Trans -acting regulatory elements : DNA sequences that produce transcription factors.
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presentation_23 - Lecture 23 Evolution and development...

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